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TABLE 37.-Per cent of foreign-born male employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified amount per day, by race and length of residence in the United States-Con.

Race and years in United States.

Polish:

Under 5. 5 to 9.

10 or over.

Russian:

Under 5. 5 to 9...

10 or over.

Ruthenian: Under 5. 5 to 9..

10 or over.

Scotch:

Under 5. 5 to 9..

10 or over..

Slovak:

Under 5.

5 to 9...

10 or over..

Slovenian:

Under 5.. 5 to 9..

10 or over..

Swedish:

Under 5.

5 to 9..
10 or over.

Welsh:

Under 5.

5 to 9.

10 or over..

Bohemian and Moravian.
Croatian...

English..

French.

German..

Irish...

Italian, North...

Italian, South.

Lithuanian.

Magyar..

Polish.

Russian.

Ruthenian.

Scotch.

Slovak..

Race.

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TABLE 38.-Comparative earnings per day of foreign-born male employees 18 years of age or over, by race and length of residence in the United States.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only races with 200 or more males reporting.]

IN UNITED STATES UNDER 5 YEARS.

45.7

11.6

59.8

53. 1

50.1

64.0

$3 or
over.

38.0

26.5

34.8

4.5

6.0

6.6

12. 2

16. 1

28.4

10. 1

62.6

12.9

4.2

20.7

26.5

1.3

4.3

4.2

31.0

26.5

20.6

3.8

5.7

6.5

6.9

7.9

9.9

9.5

17.1

20.3

6.5

9.1

22.0

Per cent earning each specified amount per day.

$3 or
over.

23.6

3.6

32.8

9.3

23. 1

22.0

12. 1

8.9

14.6

2.1

4.5

4.2

$3.50 or

over.

1.3

31.0

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3.8

6.9

0.7

1.7

1.6

8.5 12.1

1.4

7.1

5.9

7.0

.8

1.8

2.8

.8

1.2

2.3

11.4

9.7

7.0

$3.50 or over.

8.7

.7

14.6

2.5

4.6

14.0

3.2

2.2

5.3

.8 .0 .0

Slovenian..

Swedish.

Welsh...

780 96.8 94.0
21 100.0 100.0
31 100.0 93.5

95. 2
83.9

29.4

19.0
41.9

9.5
6.5

*This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

TABLE 38.-Comparative earnings per day of foreign-born male employees 18 years of age or over, by race and length of residence in the United States-Continued.

IN UNITED STATES 5 TO 9 YEARS.

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It is evident that, with some few exceptions, the foreign-born races show an increase of earnings as the length of residence increases. Taking the Croatians as an example, it will be noted that while only 11.6 per cent of those in the United States less than five years are earning $2.50 or over per day, 24.7 per cent of those here from five to nine years and 38.8 per cent of those here ten years or more, are earning this amount. Of those in this country under five years only 0.7 per cent are making as much as $3.50 a day, whereas 2.7 per cent of those here from five to nine years, and 5.9 per cent of those here ten years or more, are earning that amount.

The exceptions referred to are principally the older immigrant races, such as the English, German, and Scotch. While 14.6 per cent of the English who have come to this country within the past years are earning at least $3.50 a day, only 8.2 per cent of those here ten years or more are earning as much as that.

Per cent of foreign-born male employees 18 years of age or over earning $2.50 or over per day, by race and years in the United States.

[This chart shows only races with 800 or more employees reporting.]

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ANNUAL EARNINGS OF MALE HEADS OF FAMILIES STUDIED.

The table next submitted shows, by general nativity and race, the number and per cent of husbands at work, in the households of bituminous mine workers studied, together with their average annual earnings.

TABLE 39.- Husbands at work, by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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Of the 2,100 families studied, 18 families only are without husbands.

It is evident, from the table immediately preceding, that the husbands in all of the families classed as native white born of native father were at work. The same situation is disclosed in the case of the native-born negro, as well as in the English and Irish families of the second generation. Among the 1,969 families whose heads are of foreign birth, only two husbands (German) were not at work.

The largest average annual earnings of húsbands at work are found among the Irish of the second generation. The average income of the Irish native-born of foreign father is 24.9 per cent greater than that of the native white of native father and 7.1 per cent higher than the average earnings of the English heads of families of the second generation. The English husbands native-born of foreign father, while earning less than the second generation Irish, have an average 16.6 per cent larger than the native white heads of families. The American white husbands at work, although they earn an average income less than the second generation English and Irish, receive annually 37.3 per

cent more than the average of all foreign heads of families, and 58.1 per cent more than the American negro. It is a noteworthy fact, however, that the foreign-born German husbands earn more than the American, and that the Welsh and English of foreign birth receive an income but slightly lower than the American. This is probably due to the fact that the heads of families of the races from Great Britain and Germany were experienced miners before coming to the United States.

Among the foreign-born heads of families, the lowest annual earnings are shown by the Russians. These are 15.2 per cent less than the low average for the total foreign-born, and 38.2 per cent less than the American white. Moreover, the earnings of the French and Slovenian heads of households are but slightly greater than those of the Russians. The Bohemian and Moravian, Croatian, North Italian, Lithuanian, Magyar, and Ruthenian figures are also below the average of the total for all husbands of foreign birth, while the Welsh, Slovak, Roumanian, Polish, South Italian, Irish, German, and English heads of households receive an annual income above the general average of those of foreign birth.

The smallness of the average annual earnings of the heads of families employed in the mines becomes more apparent when expressed in terms of a month instead of in terms of a year. By a simple division, the general averages may be presented in terms of months as follows:

Average earnings per month of husbands at work. Grand total for all races.

$37.58 Total foreign-born.

36.83 Total native-born...

49. 17 Total native-born of foreign father.

61. 25 Total native-born of native father:

White.... Negro. If to this general showing be added the exhibits of the heads of certain families of foreign birth who are below the general average, the showing is even more striking. A few selected races make the following exhibit:

50. 58 32.00

Average earnings per month of husbands at work.
Russian..
French.
Mexican..
Slovenian
Croatian
Bohemian and Moravian..
Magyar.
Italian, North.
Lithuanian..
Ruthenian.

$31. 25 31. 66 32. 58 32.00 33. 42 34, 41 34. 67 35. 50 35. 42 36. 75

These tabulations indicate clearly that the average immigrant head of a family employed in or about the mines receives an annual income about equal to that of common unskilled laborers the country over.

The range of annual earnings of male heads of families, and the relative proportion in each specified wage classification, are shown in the table following. The presentation is by general nativity and

race.

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