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It appears that 70.3 per cent of the individuals reporting in the entire industry earn not less than $2 a day. The greatest proportion earning this amount are in the Southwest, where 94.9 per cent are so reported. In the South the percent who are earning not less than $2 a day is 58.4; in the Middle West it is 85.3, and in Pennsylvania 64.6. "The earnings of the foreign-born Scotch reporting are greater than those of any other foreign-born race. In the Middle West, the per cent of Scotch employees who earn not less than $2 a day is 89.1; in Pennsylvania it is 86.6, in the Southwest 98.5, and in the entire bituminous coal-mining industry 88.7. The English employees follow the Scotch in the percentage of those who earn not less than $2 a day. In the Middle West the proportion is 92 per cent, in Pennsylvania 84.2, in the South 84.4, in the Southwest 94.7, and in the entire industry 87.9 per cent. These two races are representative of the northern European immigrants.
Among the southern and eastern European races, the North Italians, Russians, and Slovenians each report 78.7 per cent of their number earning $2 or more per day. The Bohemians and Moravians in the Middle West report 89 per cent earning $2 or more a day; in Pennsylvania their proportion is 72.9, and in the entire industry it is 78.5 per cent. The Croatian and Slovak races have smaller proportions earning not less than $2 a day than has any other race. In the Middle West 94.3 per cent of the Croatians reporting earn $2 or more a day; in Pennsylvania the proportion is 48.1 per cent, in the South, 55.6 per cent, and in the entire industry, 52.8 per cent.
In the Middle West the per cent of Slovaks who earn not less than $2 a day is 80.3; in Pennsylvania it is 55.2, in the South 82.9, in the Southwest 91.1, and in the entire industry 58.3.
The table next submitted shows the per cent of males 18 years of age or over earning $3 or more per day, by locality and by general nativity and race. TABLE 35—Per cent of male employees 18 years of age or over earning $3 or over per
day, by locality and by general nativity and race.*
(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 80 or more males reporting in each of two or more localities. The
totals, however, are for all races. )
General nativity and race.
Total bitumi. nous coal mining.
Native-born of native father:
9.9 Native born of foreign father, by country of birth of father: Austria-Hungary
17.1 18.8 Germany..
21.6 Foreign-born, by race: Bohemian and Moravian.
41.7 16.3 13.8 18.2
31.3 12.0 (a)
14.3 * This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year. a Not computed, owing to small number involved.
Table 35.—Per cent of male employees 18 years of age or over earning $5 or over per
day, by locality and by general nativity and race-Continued.
a Not computed, owing to small number involved. This table is of special interest for two reasons: (1) Of all employees in the industry from whom information was secured only 12.4 per cent earn $3 or over per day; (2) the per cent of employees who earn at least this amount in the Middle West is far larger than in any other locality, while the per cent shown for Pennsylvania is by far the smallest. As between the persons native-born of foreign father and the foreign-born, it will be seen that in each locality, with the exception of the Southwest, a larger per cent of the former than of the latter earn $3 or more a day.
While this table is presented chiefly for the purpose of comparison of the several races in one locality with the same races in some other locality, it also shows the proportion of each race who earn a specified amount in the entire industry. Of the foreign-born races, the older immigrants, from Great Britain and northern Europe, show, upon the whole, a larger per cent earning at least $3 a day than do the more recent immigrants.
The Middle West shows a larger proportion of each foreign race, with very few exceptions, earning $3 or more a day than does any other locality; the next largest proportions earning this amount are reported from the Southwest, while with one or two exceptions the smallest proportions are shown in Pennsylvania. For example, the Croatians show 69.9 per cent of their race in the Middle West earning $3 or over a day, as compared with 3.8 per cent in the South and 2.3 per cent in Pennsylvania. The race showing the next largest proportion in the Middle West, and also a large proportion in the Southwest, is the German, 46.3 per cent of whose people in the Middle West, as compared with 31.6 per cent in the Southwest, 14.7 per cent in the South, and 6.5 per cent in Pennsylvania, earn $3 or over per day. The Lithuanians, on the other hand, show 56.8 per cent of their number in the Southwest and only 21.4 and 13.5 per cent in the Middle West and Pennsylvania, respectively, earning the above amount. The Poles also show a larger proportion in the Southwest than in the Middle West or other localities.
Persons native-born of foreign father whose fathers were born in Austria-Hungary show only 8.9 per cent in the entire industry who earn $3 or over a day-the Middle West showing the largest proportion, or 26.2 per cent, as compared with 2.4 per cent of those in Pennsylvania, while in the other localities the number reporting is insufficient for comparison. The Middle West shows for the second generation of each race reporting a larger proportion earning the amount above specified than is shown by any other locality, the Southwest the next largest, and Pennsylvania the lowest. This is also true of persons native-born of native father. The most interesting fact, however, in this connection is that the negro shows a larger proportion than the native white of individuals who earn $3 or over a day in the Middle West, or 32.5 per cent of the former as compared with 25.1 per cent of the latter. An extremely small proportion of native whites in Pennsylvania, and a but slightly larger per cent in the South, earn as much as $3 a day.
That larger proportions of all races reporting who earn $3 or over a dav are found in the Middle West and Southwest than in the South and Pennsylvania, indicates that organized labor has played no small part in maintaining higher wages. In addition to the foregoing it is also safe to assume that a larger proportion of the several races in the Middle West and Southwest are, because of previous experience, gained perhaps in Pennsylvania, more efficient than the majority of those now employed in Pennsylvania and the South.
In connection with the daily earnings of bituminous mine workers 18 years of age or over, the earnings of workers of all races and nativities between the ages of 14 and 18 years may be noted. The following table embodying the information received from 3,629 employees between the age limits of 14 and 18 years shows the per cent by principal races and general nativity of those who earn each specified amount per day. Table 36.—Per cent of male employees 14 and under 18 years of age earning each specified amount per day, by general nativity and race.
(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]
* This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.
Upon comparing the percentages for the totals of the different groups of younger mine workers in the foregoing table, it is seen that of the grand total 6.8 per cent are receiving less than $1 per day, 3.9 per cent of the persons native-born of foreign father, 3.6 per cent of the total foreign-born, and 7.8 per cent of the total native-born, being so reported. A relatively large proportion of foreign-born as compared with native-born persons is found in all classifications, entered in this table, and this comparison is especially significant in the classifications showing those who earn $2 or more than $2 a day. It is also noteworthy that the proportions of persons native-born of foreign father in the higher earning classifications are larger than those of persons native-born of native father. Another significant feature of the foregoing table is the showing of the relatively low earning capacity of the negro, 27.3 per cent of this race earning less than $i
day and only 55.2 per cent receiving $1.25 or more daily, 40.3 per cent $1.50 or more, and 10.8 per cent $2 or more a day. 'About the same proportions of all races native-born of foreign father earn $1 or more a day, with the exception of persons of Italian, Irish, and AustroHungarian parentage, who are a small per cent below other mine workers of the second generation. In the higher ranges of earnings, however, the distinctions among different peoples of the second generation become quite marked. In the showing as to percentages of persons earning $1.25 or more a day the Scotch stand first, followed in the order named by those whose fathers were born in England, Wales, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy, Ireland, and Russia. In the next classification, receiving $i.50 or more a day, the Scotch still show the largest proportion, but the English drop from second place to third, and the second place is taken by the Welsh. The Germans still show the fourth largest proportion, the Italians advance to fifth place, the native-born of Austro-Hungarian father go from fifth to sixth rank, and the Irish and the Russians remain seventh and eighth. In the next classification, of $2 or over, the Scotch still show the largest proportions, the Italians enter the second place, and the English the third, while those whose fathers were from Austria-Hungary and Ireland show the lowest proportions. In the highest classifications of earnings, $2.50 or over, the Scotch have the highest proportion, the Italians, English, Welsh, Germans, Irish, and the races of Russian and Austro-Hungarian parentage, following in the order named.
Among the races of foreign birth, the Polish and Slovak show slightly more than 7 per cent earning less than $1 a day. None of the North Italians earn less than $1 a day, while 23.7 per cent earn $2.50 or over, and 60 per cent have a daily earning capacity of $2
Of the total number of South Italians only 8.3 per cent earn as much as $2.50 a day, but 30.6 per cent earn $2 or more. The Magyars stand next to the North Italians in the proportions earning $2 or more per day, but are fourth in the relative proportion of races earning $2.50 or more. Of the Slovaks 26.6 per cent, and of the Poles 19.5 per cent, receive a daily wage of $2 or more, while 10.3 per cent of the Slovaks and 2.4 per cent of the Poles earn at least $2.50 a day. The relatively large proportions of all races thus shown to be in the higher classifications of earnings indicate that the mine workers among the different races of foreign birth between the ages of 14 and 18 are in the same general class of work as the employees of a greater age and have almost as great earning ability. On
the other hand, the greater proportions of native-born, both of native and of foreign father, are in the lower classification of earnings, showing, as compared with foreign-born, that the younger employees of native birth are engaged as trappers (opening and shutting doors for the passage of mine cars) and in similar occupations, and are not entering to so large an extent as the foreign-born the occupations in which adults are engaged.
RELATION BETWEEN PERIOD OF RESIDENCE AND EARNING ABILITY.
In addition to studying the present earnings of the miners by race, it is important to note the progress in earning capacity of the different races by years in the United States, in order to ascertain whether or not there is any increase in earning ability with a longer period of residence. In answer to this inquiry the following tables show the percentage of foreign-born mine workers 18 years of age or over earning each specified rate per day, by race and by length of residence in the United States. Table 37. ---Per cent of foreign-born male
employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified amount per day, by race and length of residence in the United States.
(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States.
only races with 200 or more males reporting.)
This table includes
Race and years in United States.
Number Per cent earning each specified amount per day.
data. over. over. over. over. over. over.
Bohemian and Moravlan:
208 98.6 93.8 79.8 45.7 23.6 8.7 5 to 9..
97.8 94.9 82.6 49.4 30.3 7.9 10 or over.
5.0 Croatian: Under 5. 1, 223 95.9 86.3 44.3 11.6 3.6
7 5 to 9.
818 98. 3
92.5 60.1 24.7 10.1 2.7 10 or over.
237 99.2 96.6 70.9 38.8 19.8 5.9 English: Under 5.
378 99.5 98.7
59.8 32.8 14.6 5 to 9.
205 98.0 98.0 91.7 60.0 27.8 12.7 10 or over
1,700 97.9 97.3 86.8 53.2 22.0 8. 2 French: Under 5.
162 96.9 95.7 86.4 53. 1 9.3 2.5 5 to 9..
211 97.2 95. 3 82.0 50.7 14.2 5.2 10 or over
358 95.3 91.6 78.8 50.8 10.6 2.8 German: Under 5.
389 97.4 95. 1 83.0 50.1 23.1 4.6 5 to 9.
339 97.9 96. 2 80.5 49.6 25.4 10.0 10 or over.
1,812 96.0 93.6 77.3 44. 2 20.0 7.3 Irish: Under 5..
50 100.0 100.0 88.0
14.0 5 to 9.
100.0 94.4 52.8 13.9 8.3 10 or over
755 96.6 93.4 69.3 36.8 13.8 3.3 Italian, North: Under 5.
2, 487 97.0 94.6 73.9 38.0 12.1 3.2 5 to 9..
2, 211 97.6 96. 2 81.3 45.8 17.4 4.4 10 or over
1,443 96.9 96.0 82.8 51.8 22.0 6.7 Italian, South: Under 5.
1, 728 96.9 90.4 56.5 26.5 8.9 2.2 5 to 9..
1, 482 98.4 95.9 69. 2 37.0 18. 2 4.9 10 or over.
699 98.6 94.4 69. 1 37.1 14.4 4.7 Lithuanian: Under 5..
451 96.7 94.5 72.3
5.3 5 to 9.
657 95.9 94.7 77.9 46.0 23.9 7.2 10 or over.
659 95.6 95.0 77.1 48.3 22.6 8.2 Magyar: Under 5.
2 5 to 9.
1,355 97.6 93.8 70.0 20.7 5.6 1.2 10 or over..
719 97.6 92.9 65.9 24.9
1.1 * This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual Earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.