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DAILY EARNINGS.

The data secured in the study made as to the daily earnings of 79,575 individual mine workers who were 18 years of age or over are partly presented in the following table, which shows, by general nativity and race, the per cent who earn each specified amount per day. Table 33. ---Per cent of male employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified

amount per day, by general nativity and race.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 80 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

Number

Per cent earning each specified amount per day. General nativity and race.

reporting

Average complete

per day.

earnings

$1.25 or $1.50 or
over. over.

$2 or over.

$2.50 or
over.

$3 or
over.

$3.50 or over.

data.

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Native-born of native father:

White

Negro .
Native-born of foreign father, by
country of birth of father:

Austria-Hungary
England
France
Germany
Ireland
Italy
Russia
Scotland

Wales
Foreign-born, by race:

Bohemian and Moravian
Bulgarian
Croatian
Dutch
English
French
German
Greek
Irish
Italian, North
Italian, South.
Lithuanian
Magyar
Mexican
Montenegrin
Polish
Roumanian
Russian
Ruthenian
Scotch
Servian
Slovak
Slovenian
Swedish
Welsh

Grand total
Total native-born of foreign father
Total native-born
Total foreign-born

4.2

705

161 2,278

93 2,283

731 2,540

10S

841 6,141 3. 909 1, 767 4,171

106

127 6, 793

145 1,763

290 1,053

124 10,575 1,783

293

356 79,575

2.34
2.07
1.98
2. 18
2.50
2. 28
2.35
2.01
2. 24
2.28
2. 14
2. 28
2.00
2.44
2.13
1.99
1.84
2. 26
1.98
2. 48
2.04
2.03
2. 18
2. 41
2.41
2.19

97. 3 98. 1 97.1 96.8 98. 2 96.2 96.5 94. 4 96.9 97.2 97.7 96.0 97.6 100.0 100.0 93. 5 96.6 98, 2 95.5 98. 2 98. 4 96, 9 97. 3 99. 3 98.0 96. 9

93.0 92. 5 89.6 93.5 97.6 93. 6 94.2 90. 7 94.1 95. 5 93. 2 94. 7 92. 3 100.0 99. 2 89. 2 88. 3 95. 1 87.6 97.5 96.8 92. 7 95. 1 98. 3 96. 9 93.5

78.4 64.0 52. 8 79.6 87.9 81.4 78. 6 58.3 71.5 78. 7 63. 6 76. 2 61.9 96. 2 61. 4 61.3 44.8 78. 7 53. 1 88. 7 63. 7 58. 3 78. 7 89.4 85. 4 70.3

43. 8 33. 5 19.1 35.5 54.9 51.3 45. 8 22. 2 39.1 44.0 32. 4 44.0 17.1 73. 6 31.5 18.5 12. 4 38.1 14.5 56.6 23. 4. 17.8 37.2 45. 7 53. 7 34. 6

21.3 12.4 7.6 7.5 24. 3 11.4 21. 2

2.8 14. 3 16. 3 13. 4 21.1 4.0 9.4 19.7 5.5

.0 13. 6

2.8 22. 7 5. 6 4.9 7.9 19. 1 20. 2 12. 4

3.7 7.1

.7 1.9 4.7 1.2

.0 5.3

.3 6.9

.8 1.7 1.2 9.2 6.2 3.9

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* This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

Upon information obtained for 79,575 males in this industry, it will be noted that 70.3 per cent earn $2 or over per day, 34.6 per cent $2.50 or over, and 12.4 per cent $3 or over, while 3.9 per cent are earning $3.50 or over. Ås between the foreign-born and the native born of foreign father, it will be seen that a considerably smaller proportion of the former than of the latter earn the higher rates. Comparing the native-born of foreign father with the native-born of native father, it will be noted that the whites born of native father report only a slightly smaller proportion, while the negroes report &

[graphic]

Averuge earnings in dollars per day of male employees 18 years of age or over, by general nativity and race.

[This chart shows only races with 500 or more employees reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

very much smaller proportion, than do the native-born of foreign father earning the higher rates.

As regards the specified earnings of the various foreign-born races, it will be seen that none of the Mexicans earn under $1.50 and none of the Montenegrins earn under $1.25 per day. With these exceptions, each race reports a comparatively small proportion earning under $1.50. Not, however, until the earnings reach $2 or over per day do the proportions vary to any great extent.

Of those earning as much as $2, the Mexicans report the largest proportion, or 96.2 per cent, and the Roumanians the smallest proportion, or 44.8 per cent. Following the Mexicans are the Swedes, Scotch, English, Welsh, and French, each reporting over 80 per cent, and the Dutch, North Italians, Russians, Slovenians, Germans, Bohemians and Moravians, and Lithuanians, each reporting between 75 and 80 per cent, while the proportions of the other races range from 71.5 per cent of the Irish to 52.8 per cent of the Croatians. Among those earning $2.50 or over per day, the Mexicans again report the largest and the Roumanians the smallest proportion, or 73.6 and 12.4 per cent, respectively. Comparing the other races earning at least $2.50, it will be noted that the Scotch, who follow the Mexicans, report a slightly larger proportion than the English, Welsh, or French, and a considerably larger proportion than the Germans, Swedes, North Italians, Lithuanians, or Bohemians and Moravians, these races reporting, each, over 40 per cent, while the proportions of those still lower range from 39.1 per cent of the Irish to 14.5 per cent of the Ruthenians. None of the Roumanians earn $3 or over per day, in contrast with 24.3 per cent of the English, who show the largest proportion. Closely following the English are the Scotch, Bohemians and Moravians, Germans, Lithuanians, Welsh, Montenegrins, and Swedes, the last named reporting 19.1 per cent. Of the remaining races earning this amount, the North Italians show the largest proportion, or 16.3 per cent, and the Greeks and Ruthenians, with 2.8 per cent each, the smallest portion. The English and Swedes, each reporting a proportion slightly below 10 per cent earning $3.50 or over per day, show a larger proportion than the Germans, Lithuanians, Scotch, Bohemians and Moravians, Welsh, or Russians, in the order named, and a much larger proportion than that shown by any other race.

Comparing the proportions of males native-born of foreign father earning each specified amount, it will be noted that, with the exception of those whose fathers were born in Russia, there is comparatively little difference among the races in the proportions earning $1.25 or $1.50 a day; also, in the case of each race shown in the foregoing table, only a slightly smaller proportion earn $1.50 than earn $1.25 a day.

As regards the males earning $2 or over per day, those whose fathers were born in Wales report 89.6 per cent, a larger proportion than of those whose fathers were born in Scotland, England, France, Germany, Ireland, or Italy, and much in excess of the proportion of those whose fathers were born in Austria-Hungary or Russia, the last named reporting 57.8 per cent. The second generation of Welsh occupy the same position among those earning $2.50 and $3 or over per day, in that they show the largest proportion earning these specified amounts. The lowest proportions shown for those earning $2.50 or over per day are reported for the native-born of Austro

pro

[graphic]

Per cent of male employees 18 years of age or over carning less than per day and per cent earning and

under $8.50 per day, by general nativity and race. [This chart shows only races with 500 or more employees reporting. The totals, however, are for all racen.]

9-11-9 101-96787

NATIVE-BORN OF NATIVE FATHER
WHITE

NEGRO
NATIVE-BORN OF FOREIGN FATHER,
BY COUNTRY OF BIRTH OF FATHER
ENGLAND
GERMANY
IRELAND

SCOTLAND
FOREIGN-BOAN,BY RACE

BOHEMIAN AND MORAVIAN
CROATIAN
ENGLISH
FRENCH
GERMAN
IRISH
ITALIAN, NORTH
ITALIAN, SOUTH
LITHUANIAN
MAGYAR
POLISH
RUSSIAN
SCOTCH
SLOVAK
SLOVENIAN
TOTALS
NATIVE-BORN OF FOREIGN FATHER
NATIVE-BORN
FOREIGN-BORN
GRAND TOTAL

UNDER $ 2.00

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Hungarian father, with 31.5 per cent, and the native-born of Russian father, with 33.3 per cent. Among those earning $3.00 or over per day the position of these two races is reversed, those whose fathers were born in Austria-Hungary reporting 8.9 per cent, while the nativeborn of Russian father report 4.9 per cent.

As regards the proportions of males earning the highest specified amount, or $3.50 or over per day, it will be seen that those whose fathers were born in Italy show a slightly larger proportion than those whose fathers were born in France, Scotland, Germany, or England, and a very much larger proportion than those whose fathers were born in Wales, Ireland, Austria-Hungary, or Russia, in the order named-the last mentioned reporting only 1 per cent earning this amount per day.

As between the whites and negroes native-born of native father, the latter, while showing a slightly smaller proportion than the former earning $1.25 and $1.50 or over, show a very much smaller proportion earning other specified amounts per day.

The table next presented shows for the industry as a whole the per cent of males 18 years of age or over earning $2 or more a day. The information is tabulated by localities and by general nativity and race of the individuals reporting. This table includes only those races reporting 80 or more males in each of two or more localities, the totals, however, being for all races.

TABLE 34.-Per cent of male employees 18 years of age or over earning $2 or over per day, by locality and by general nativity and race.* (STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

*

[This table includes only races with 80 or more males reporting in each of two or more localities. The totals, however, are for all races.]

Native-born of native father:

White..

Negro.

Native-born of foreign father, by country of birth of

father:

Austria-Hungary.

England..

Germany. Ireland.

Scotland.

Wales...

General nativity and race.

Foreign-born, by race:

Bohemian and Moravian.

Croatian..

English.

French.

German.

Irish.

Italian, North.
Italian, South.
Lithuanian..

Magyar..

Polish.

Russian.

Scotch.

Slovak.

Slovenian..
Welsh...

Grand total..

Total native-born of foreign father.
Total native-born..

Total foreign-born.

Middle Pennsyl-
West. vania.

87.2

83.9

88.1

90.2

93.4

87.0

89.9

88.5

89.0

94.3

92.0

80.2

92.4

83.3

84.2

90.8

73.8

63.9

74.5

95.0

89. 1

80.3

71.4

86.7

85.3

90.3

87.9

83.1

70.1

60.0

54.4

81.1

70.5

72.1
84.8

89.4

72.7

48. 1

84.2

72.3

68.3

65.5

71.2

54.8

76.4

64.4

58.4

73.3

86.6

55.2

76.5

82.0

64.6

73.8

70.5

62.9

South.

65.8
44. 1

000000

(a)
55.6

84.4

(a)

84.4

(a)

65.3

59.2

(a)

67.9

73.1

(a)

85.1

82.9

(a)

(a)

58.4

66.3

54.6

67.6

South

west.

96. 1
90.4

(a)

88.6

93.3

96.8

96.6

(a)

(a)

(a)

95.8

94.6

97.1

96.5

97.0

95.6

93.2

(a)

79.3

94. 1

98.5

91.1

97.2

(a)

94.9

92.2

94.2

95.3

Total bituminous coal mining.

76.7 52.5

64.3

84.6

80.6

77.8

86.4

89.6

78.4

52.8

87.9

81.4

78.6

71.5

78.7

63.6

76.2

64.9

61.3

78.7

88.7

58.3

78.7

85.4

70.3

80.7

72.5

69.0

This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

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