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A significant point shown by the table is that 58 per cent of the total number of the men now in the coal and coke industry were occupied abroad as farmers or farm laborers. Only 20.7 per cent had had experience in mining before they came to this country. Although the proportion of the total foreign-born is comparatively small, the several races vary widely in regard to the numbers who have had experience in mining abroad. Only 3.6 per cent of the Croatians had been in that occupation before coming to the United States, while 88.2 per cent of the Scotch had been so employed.
The table next presented shows, by general nativity and race, for each of the coal-mining localities studied, the per cent of foreign-born male employees who report employment in mining before coming to the United States.
Table 29.- Per cent of foreign-born male employees who were engaged in mining before
coming to the United States, by locality and by race.
(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (This table includes only races with 80 or more males reporting in each of two or more localities. The total,
however, is for all foreign-born.)
The figures of the foregoing table are of twofold interest: (1) They indicate the relations existing among the different races in the matter of previous mining experience; (2) they show in what districts the proportion of immigrants who have had mining experience abroad is highest.
The figures for the various localities show that the proportion of employees with previous experience in mining is highest in the Southwest and lowest in the South. The percentage of such employees is higher in the Middle West than in Pennsylvania. In the Southwest the French, English, and German; in the Middle West the Scotch, English, Bohemian and Moravian, and German; in Pennsylvania, the Scotch, English, French, and German; and in the South the Slovak and Polish, are the races for which the highest percentages of men who had experience in mining before coming to the United States are reported. The races having the smallest proportion of men employed in mining abroad are: For the Southwest, the South Italian; for the Middle West, the Lithuanian; and for Pennsylvania and the South, the Croatian.
It is true of the majority of the races, as it is of all the employees reported, irrespective of race, that the proportion of men who were employed abroad in mining is, in general, higher in the Southwest than in the Middle West, higher in the Middle West than in Pennsylvania, and lowest of all in the South. This becomes apparent upon
reference to the figures for the different races. The percentages given in this table seem to justify two general conclusions. It will appear, first, that the proportion of men who had experience in mining before immigrating to the United States is much higher for the races of northern and western Europe, the races of the old immigration, than it is for the races of southern and eastern Europe, the races of the more recent immigration. This showing is in complete harmony with, and seems, at least in a measure, to explain what is known of, the comparative merits of the men of the different races as workmen.
GENERAL OCCUPATION OF WOMEN AT THE PRESENT TIME, IN THE
The general occupation of all females 16 years of age or over, in the households studied, is presented in the table below, by general nativity and race of individual.
Table 30.-General occupation of females 16 years of age or over, by general nativity and
race of individual.
(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]
In trade. wise em- At home. At school. personal service.
Total native-born of foreign father.
9.4 5.9 .3
A comparison of the totals in the foregoing table shows that the smallest proportion of females remaining at home, 69.8 per cent, is reported for those who were native-born of foreign father. In the same group 8.9 per cent are engaged in domestic
service, which is higher than the entries for either the foreign-born or the whites native-born of native father, while 9.4 per cent are at school, also a higher percentage than is shown for either of the other two groups, and 5 per cent are reported in trade. The total native-born report 6.7 per cent of their number in domestic service, 3.6 per cent in trade, and 3.8 per cent in other occupations. Eighty per cent are at home, compared to 98.6 per cent of the foreign-born females. Of the white females native-born of native father, 91.3 per cent are shown to be at home, 3.3 per cent are in domestic service, and only 2.2 per cent at school, as compared to 78.1 per cent of the negroes at home, 12.5 per cent in domestic service, and 6.3 per cent at school. Of the Irish females native-born of foreign father, 55.9 per cent are at home, 8.8 per cent are engaged in trade, 20.6 per cent are in other occupations, 11.8 per cent are at school, and 2.9 per cent are employed as domestics. In contrast, 21.4 per cent of the Germans and 9.3 per cent of the Slovaks in the same group, are reported in domestic service.
Of the foreign-born females 16 years of age or over, 100 per cent of the English, Mexicans, Russians, and Ruthenians are at home, while from 93.8 to 99.4 per cent of the other races appearing in this table are reported at home. A very small percentage of foreign-born females are engaged in domestic service, the Welsh with 3.1 per cent and the Germans with 3.8 per cent reporting the highest. Only three races report females at school, the Lithuanians, with 0.6 per cent, the North Italians with 1 per cent, and the Croatians with 1.5 per cent. In miscellaneous occupations the highest percentages are the Irish, 3.2 and the Welsh, 3.1.
GENERAL OCCUPATION OF MALES AT THE PRESENT TIME, IN THE
The general occupation of all males 16 years of age or over in the households studied is set forth in the following table, by general nativity and race of individual. TABLE 31.-General occupation of males 16 years of age or over, by general nativity and
race of individual.
(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)
TABLE 31.-General occupation of males 16 years of age or over, by general nativity and race of individual-Continued.
The significant fact exhibited by the totals for all races in the table above, as well as for separate races, is that practically all of the males 16 years of age or over in the households studied are engaged in work in or about the coal mines. Of the whites nativeborn of native father, only 8.3 per cent are in occupations other than coal mining, and only 3.1 per cent of the native negroes are engaged in other work. Of the whites native-born of native father, only 3.6 per cent above 16 years of age are at school, and 0.6 per cent at home. The males of the second generation show a stronger tendency than do either the foreign-born or the native-born of native father, to enter occupations other than coal mining, 17.1 per cent of the native-born of foreign father being engaged in other work than coal mining. Seven per cent are at school, and 2.2 per cent at home. Of the Irish of the second generation, 17.9 per cent are working outside of the coal mines, 7.1 percent are at school, and 3.6 per cent are at home. Practically all of the foreign-born males 16 years of age or over are at work in the mines, only 2.4 per cent of the total being at work in other occupations than coal mining, 0.2 per cent at school, and 0.8 per cent at home. In general, it should be noted that in the case of all families studied for the purpose of making an exhibit of conditions. existing among the bituminous mine workers, a negligible per cent of the males are engaged in outside work and consequently, for the object in view, the families are as purely those of bituminous coalmine workers as can be selected.
STATUS OF THE FIRST AND SECOND GENERATIONS COMPARED.
As regards the principal races for which sufficient material is available for a comparative showing, the table following, giving the per cent of males 16 years of age or over in each general occupation classified according to birth, whether in the United States or abroad, indicates the general situation for all races.
TABLE 32.- Per cent of males 16 years of age or over engaged in bituminous coal mining,
by general nativity and race of father and by birthplace of individual.
(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only races with 20 or more males born in the United States, and also 20 or more born
abroad. The native-born of native father are shown for comparative purposes. ]
Upon reference to the foregoing table it will be seen that all the foreign-born English are engaged in mining, while of those of the second generation 76.9 per cent are in mining and 23.1 per cent are in other occupations. Of the Irish, those of foreign birth show a proportion of 95 per cent at work in the mines as contrasted with a percentage of 80 of those who were born in the United States; 5 per cent of those of foreign birth, and 20 per cent of those of native birth, are at work outside of the coal-mining industry. The only race from southern or eastern Europe for which a detailed showing has been made is the Slovak. Of the Slovaks of foreign birth, 99.7 per cent are at work in the mines, as are 92.7 per cent of the Slovaks of the second generation, 0.3 per cent of the foreign-born and 7.3 per cent of the native-born being in work other than coal mining.
OCCUPATIONS ENTERED IN THE BITUMINOUS COAL-MINING INDUSTRY.
As regards the status of the immigrant mine workers within the industry itself, the races of recent immigration are engaged in the occupations of digging and loading coal, and in the rough, unskilled work both inside and outside of the mines. Practically all of the occupations requiring training and experience or carrying responsibility are filled by the races of older immigration from Great Britain and northern Europe. The occupations which are termed day or shift places, and for which payments are made on the basis of so much per hour, day, or month, are also almost without exception held by natives and races of older immigration. This division has been brought about voluntarily by the natives and older immigrants for the purpose of avoiding direct working relations with the races of southern and eastern Europe. The races of recent immigration prefer the occupations of mining and loading because the work is paid for on a piece-rate basis and there are no fixed limitations upon earning possibilities. This preference is also largely responsible for the failure of recent immigrants to move upward in the scale of occupations.