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Table 24.Occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born females who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

(This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign

born.)

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Of the total number of 1,787 females of different races represented in these tables, 64.6 per cent were without occupation before coming to the United States, 18.4 per cent were working for fixed wages, 16.1 per cent were working without any fixed wages, and 0.8 per cent were working for profit. Analyzing the principal occupations entered in the foregoing table, it is apparent that the larger number of women who had employment abroad were at work on farms, 7.4 per cent of the 1,787 females reporting being farm laborers at work for wages, 15.9 per cent at work on farms without wages, and 0.7 per cent farmers for profit, which gives a total of 24 per cent engaged in farm labor. To further illustrate the large percentage engaged in farm labor, it is interesting to note that of 632 females at work abroad, 429, or 67.9 per cent, were at work on farms. Of 329 females working for wages, 132 were at farm labor; of 288 working without wages, 285 were at work either on their fathers' farms or on a subsistence or share basis; and of 15 females working for profit, 12 were farming. The principal occupations followed in addition to farming were those of domestic servants and waitresses, 7.2 per cent of the total number reporting being employed in work of this description.

The chart and two tables which follow show the industrial condition abroad of males who were 16 years of age or over at time of arrival in the United States.

Per cent of males 16 years of age or over at the time of coming to the United States who were in each specified industrial condition abroad.

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TABLE 25.- Industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born

males who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

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a Not computed, owing to small number involved. TABLE 26.-Occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born males who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born ]

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A total of 3,341 report complete data in these tables, and of this number only 39 persons, or 1.2 per cent, were without occupation; more than one-half, 54.7 per cent, were receiving money wages before coming to the United States, 28.3 per cent were working without any fixed form of wages, and 15.8 per cent were in business for themselves or working for profit. It will be observed that the great majority of immigrant mine employees were either farm laborers or farmers before coming to this country. A combined report of all three of the general industrial groups shows that 68.2 per cent of the males reporting were thus engaged, 25.3 per cent for wages, 27.8 per cent without wages, and 15.1 per cent for profit. Those engaged in hand trades constitute 7.6 per cent of the total number, and 6.4 per cent worked as common laborers. The general showing, therefore, is that about 75 per cent of the present mine workers were engaged in farming or as common laborers, with a small percentage of persons employed in hand trades and miscellaneous occupations, the significance of this showing being that none of these persons received any training or experience abroad which would fit them for efficient work in coal mines in this country. Of the different races the representatives of which were miners before coming to the United States, the largest showing is made by the Welsh and English, more than 80 per cent of the persons of these races having been miners abroad, while 40 per cent of the Irish, 29.8 per cent of the Germans, and 48.9 per cent of the Mexicans, were engaged in mining in their native lands before they entered the mines of the United States.

The races of southern and eastern Europe, which at present form the greatest additions to the immigrant coal-mine employees in the United States, make a very small showing of experience in the industry before coming to the mines of this country. Of the Ruthenian and Roumanian employees, none had experience abroad. The Lithuanians report 2 per cent engaged in míning before coming to the United States, the South Italians 2.1 per cent, the North Italians 2.7 per cent, the Russians 3.3 per cent, the Magyars 3.9 per cent, the Slovaks 6.2 per cent, the Croatians 6.3 per cent, and the Poles 9.7 per cent.

The table next presented shows what per cent of each race in the various localities is reported as having been employed in mining before coming to the United States. TABLE 27.--Per cent of foreign-born males 16 years of age or over at time of coming to the United States who were employed abroad in mining, by locality and by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting in each of two or more localities. The total,

however, is for all foreign-born.)

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Of the foreign-born males reporting who were 16 years of age or over on coming to the United States and who are now engaged in bituminous coal mining, 8.2 per cent were employed in mining abroad. Comparing the various localities, it is seen that the largest proportion with experience in mining abroad is in the Southwest, where 18.8 per cent of the employees are so reported. The South follows with 8.1 per cent, Pennsylvania with 3.6 per cent, and the Middle West with 1.5 per cent. The Croatians, North Italians, Poles, and Slovaks, show larger proportions of those employed in the Southwest than of those in any other section, to have had mining experience abroad, the difference being especially marked in the case of the Croatians and Slovaks. The Germans and Lithuanians in the South show larger proportions of experienced miners than do the same races in other sections. All races employed in the Middle West, and, with the exception of the Germans, all those employed in Pennsylvania, show very small proportions to have been employed abroad in mining.

PRINCIPAL OCCUPATION OF IMMIGRANT EMPLOYEES BEFORE COMING

TO THE UNITED STATES.

In addition to members of the households, information was secured from individual employees as to the principal occupations in which they were engaged before leaving their native lands. Of a total of 31,325 mine workers of foreign birth furnishing information, the following table shows the per cent in principal occupations abroad by race of individual: TABLE 28.- Per cent of foreign-born male employees in each specified occupation before

coming to the United States, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (This table includes only races with 80 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

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