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cent, or about one-thirteenth, are native-born negroes. About onetenth, 9.5 per cent, are native-born persons of the second generation of immigrants, or, in other words, the native-born children of foreign fathers. Of the total number of employees furnishing information 61.9 per cent are of foreign birth. Of the second generation 7,140, or 8.1 per cent of the total number of employees and more than fourfifths of the total native-born of foreign father, are children of the older immigrants of England, Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Germany, France, Belgium, Sweden, and Canada. Only about 1 per cent of the total number of employees are native-born children of immigrants from Austria-Hungary, Russia, Italy, and other countries of southern and eastern Europe.

Of all races of immigrants the foreign-born Slovaks are the most extensively employed in bituminous mining, 12.8 per cent of the total number furnishing information being of this race. The foreign-born Poles and Italians come next in the extent of their employment in the industry. T

The Poles constitute 8.3 per cent, and the North and South Italians combined 12.3 per cent, of the total number in the table. The Magyars, Croatians, Russians, and Slovenians rank next, the Magyars constituting 5.3 per cent and the Russians, Croatians, and Slovenians each more than 2 per cent of the total number of employees. The races of recent immigration from southern and eastern Europe, as a whole, constitute about one-half of the total number of bituminous mine workers. The foreign-born immigrants from Great Britain and northern Europe amount to approximately one

of The following table shows, by locality, the race of the male employees for whom information was secured: TABLE 22.—Race of male employees for whom information was secured, by locality; per

cent distribution.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

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Native-born of native father:
White....

32.0

13.1 Negro..

3.1

1.9 Indian..

.0

.0 Native-born of foreign father, by country of birth of father: Australia.

(a) Austria-Hungary

.9

1.2 Belgium..

.1

.1 Canada.

.1 Denmark.

(a) England.

3.1

2.0 France.

.1 Germany.

4.7

2.5 Greece.

.0

.0 Ireland

1.7

1.6 Italy.

.3

.1 Mexico.

.0

.0 Netherlands.

(a) Norway. Roumania.

.0 Russia.

.3

.2 Scotland.

1.5

.9 Sweden..

.1

.1 a Less than 0.05 per cent.

2.0

.2 2.6

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TABLE 22.Race of male employees for whom information was secured, by locality; per

cent distribution-Continued.

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Native-born of foreign father, by country
of birth of father-Continued.
Switzerland..
Wales..

Africa (country not specified).
Foreign-born, by race:

Armenian..
Bohemian and Moravian
Bosnian..
Bulgarian..
Canadian, French
Canadian, Other..
Croatian.
Cuban.
Dalmatian.
Danish.
Dutch.
English..
Finnish.
Flemish
French.
German
Greek.
Hebrew (other than Russian).
Herzegovinian..
Irish.
Italian, North.
Italian, South

alian (not specified).
Lithuanian..
Macedonian.
Magyar..
Mexican.
Montenegrin..
Norwegian.
Polish.
Portuguese.
Roumanian..
Russian.
Ruthenian.
Scotch.
Scotch-Irish
Servian.
Slovak.
Slovenian.
Spanish.
Swedish.
Syrian...
Turkish.
Welsh.
West Indian (other than Cuban).
Australian (race not specified).
Austrian (race not specified).
Belgian (race not specified).
Swiss (race not specified).

Grand total.........
Total native-born of foreign father.
Total native-born...
Total foreign-born.

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From this table it will be seen that while in the Middle West, Pennsylvania, and the Southwest a larger proportion of the employees in the bituminous coal-mining industry are foreign-born than nativeborn, a much larger proportion in the South are native-born than foreign-born. In the South, the negroes native-born of native father show a larger proportion than do the whites native-born of native father.

As regards the native-born of foreign father it will be seen that in both the Middle West and Pennsylvania the highest per cent is reported by those whose fathers were born in Germany, while in the Southwest the highest per cent is reported by those whose fathers were born in England.

Of the different foreign-born races reporting in each specified locality, it will be seen that in the Middle West the North Italian, Lithuanian, German, Polish, English, and Slovak, and in Pennsylvania the Slovak, Polish, Magyar, North Italian, South Italian, and Croatian are the only races reporting a proportion in excess of 4 per cent. In the South, no race but the South Italian and North Italian shows & proportion as high as 3 per cent, while in the Southwest the North Italian, Austrian, South Italian, English, French, and Polish races report proportions in excess of that figure.

Of the foreign-born Pennsylvania shows the largest proportion, or 75.7 per cent, as compared with the smallest, 29.1 per cent, as shown in the South; the Southwest shows 59.2 per cent and the Middle West 50.3 per cent. Considering the whites native-born of native father, the South and Middle West show the largest proportions, or 32.6 per cent and 32 per cent, respectively, while the Southwest and Pennsylvania show 23.8 per cent and 13.1 per cent, respectively. The South shows the largest proportion, or 35.7 per cent, of the negroes native-born of native father, while the other localities range from 5.6 per cent in the Southwest to 1.9 per cent in Pennsylvania.

Of persons native-born of foreign father, the Middle West shows the largest proportion, or 14.5 per cent, followed by the Southwest with 11.3 per cent, as compared with the smallest, or 2.5 per cent, as shown in the South.

As regards those foreign-born races which constitute 1 per cent or more of the total number of employees, it will be seen that the English, Germans, and Lithuanians form a larger proportion of the total mine employees in the Middle West than in any other region, while in Pennsylvania the Croatians, Magyars, Poles, Russians, Slovaks, and Slovenians show larger proportions than elsewhere. On the other hand, a larger proportion of South Italians is shown in the South than in any other locality, while the Irish, North Italians, Scotch, and Austrians are found in largest proportions in the Southwest.

48296° _VOL 6–11

ECONOMIC STATUS.

Industrial condition abroad of members of immigrant households studied-Principal occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United States—General occupation of women at the present time in the households studied-General occupation of males at the present time in the households studied-Status of the first and second generations compared–Occupations entered in the bituminous coal-mining industry—Daily earnings—Relation between period of residence and earning ability-Annual earnings of male heads of families studied—Annual earnings of males 18 years of age or over in the households studied—Annual family income-Wives at work-Annual earnings of females 18 years of age or over in the households studjed—Relation between the earnings of husbands and the practice of wives of keeping boarders or lodgers-Sources of family income-Relative importance of the different sources of family income—[Text Tables 23 to 58 and General Tables 6 to 18). INDUSTRIAL CONDITION ABROAD OF MEMBERS OF IMMIGRANT

HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED. Before entering into a detailed discussion of the present industrial condition of the members of immigrant households, the economic condition of the immigrant mine worker and his family before coming to the United States may be studied. Data relative to the industrial condition abroad are shown for both men and women in the households investigated in all sections in the tables which are submitted below.

The first series of tables shows the general industrial condition, as well as the principal occupation, abroad, for females 16 years of age or over on arrival in the United States. TABLE 23. — Industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born females who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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Croatian....
Danish
English..
French.
German...
Irish...
Italian, North.
Italian, South

Lithuanian Magyar..

(a)

0.0 (a)

. (a)

.0 .0 3.1

.0 2.0 .5 .0

Romanian Ruthenian Slovak.... Slovenian Welsh

.0 (a)

5 (a)

.0

Not computed, owing to small number involved.

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