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TABLE 19.-Per cent of foreign-born male employees in the United States each specified number of years, by locality and by race— -Continued.
IN UNITED STATES UNDER 10 YEARS.
Bohemian and Moravian
Italian (not specified)
IN UNITED STATES UNDER 20 YEARS.
An inspection of the foregoing table reveals the fact that of the total number of immigrant males in the Southern bituminous coal fields, 48.4 per cent have been in the country less than five years. This is the largest proportion shown for any one locality, as compared with the lowest, 26 per cent, entered for the Middle West. For the com
bined industry, 37.9 per cent of the employees have been in the United States under five years. The twelve races for which full information is entered may be grouped so as to include, first, English, Irish, Scotch, and Germans, and second, North and South Italians, Lithuanians, Magyars, Poles, Russians, Slovaks, and Slovenians. In the first group, which embraces races of early immigration, it is at once noticed that the number of individuals in all localities is comparatively small, ranging from zero to 25 per cent, except in the case of the Germans in the South, for whom 50 per cent is shown. Among the races in the second group the entries exhibit a much higher proportion, varying from about 30 to 60 per cent among the several races in the different localities. The figures for the Lithuanians in the Middle West, South, and Southwest, and the Slovaks in the Middle West, show a lower percentage, however, running down to 18 for the Slovaks in the Middle West;
while for the Russians in the Southern fields 71.6 per cent is shown.
The percentages of immigrant males in the country under ten years, shown by localities in the second section of the foregoing table, range from 57.2 per cent in the Middle West to 79.8 per cent in the Southern fields. Selecting a few of the races reporting full data for each of the several fields, it is noticed that the proportions of English, Scotch, Irish, and Welsh in all localities run much lower than those of the races from continental Europe. For example, only 6.9 per cent of the Irish in the Pennsylvania fields are residents of less than ten years, while in the Southwest the percentage recorded for the same race is 20.7. For the Welsh even lower figures are shown, varying from 8.3 per cent in the Southwest to 13.1 per cent in Pennsylvania. Representatives of the continental races, such as the Croatian, Italian, Roumanian, and Slovak, exhibit a comparatively high percentage, all being of recent immigration. In Pennsylvania and the South over 90 per cent of the Croatians have been in the country less than ten years, as against the lowest entry for the race of 57.1 per cent in the Southwest. The Roumanians vary from 90.9 per cent in the Middle West to 100 per cent in the South and Southwest. The Slovak figures range from 45.4 per cent in the Middle West to 70.3 per cent in the Southwest, and 80.5 per cent in the Southern fields.
In the third section of the table, as in the two sections preceding, the lowest percentage for all races is found in the Middle West and the highest in the Southern fields. The percentage of foreign-born males of all races who have been in the United States less than twenty years in the combined bituminous coal-mining industry is shown to be 84.9. Races from Great Britain maintain their low proportions, showing that of the English, Irish, Scotch, and Welsh found in the industry, from 65.2 to 80.6 per cent have lived in the United States more than twenty years, as against from 0.6 to 30 per cent of employees of the races from southern and eastern Europe. The percentage in the United States under 20 years entered for the English in Pennsylvania is 31, and that in the Southwest 31.3, the two lowest statements for the race in the table, which, when contrasted with 98.9 per cent for the Croatians in Pennsylvania and 100 per cent for those in the Southwest, fairly illustrates the variation between the proportions of the English-speaking immigrants and the races from continental Europe who have been in this country under twenty years. On comparing the entries for the two continental races reporting the lowest proportions—the Germans and Swedes—with the Irish, for instance, the same condition is made apparent. The Germans report an average ranging from 50.1 per cent in the Middle West to 84.8 per cent in the South; the Swedes run from 38.9 per cent in the Southwest to 80 per cent in the South; while the Irish range from as low as 16.6 per cent in the Pennsylvania district to 30.4 per cent in the Southwestern fields. One hundred per cent of the Mexicans in the South and 91.7 per cent of the same race in the Southwest, report a residence of less than twenty years. Both North and South Italians show more than 90 per cent in each locality to have lived in the United States less than twenty years, and the same may be said of the Poles, Roumanians, Servians, Slovenians, and Magyars.
The period of residence in the United States of the members of the households studied is shown by locality in the table submitted below.
TabLE 20.--Per cent of foreign-born persons in the United States each specified number
of years, by locality and by race of individual.
(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is
made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 20 or more persons reporting in each of two or more localities. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)
IN UNITED STATES UNDER 5 YEARS
a This total includes persons not given in the localities, because within a locality no race was tabulated unless 10 or more schedules were secured.
Not computed, owing to small number involved.
TABLE 20.- Per cent of foreign-born persons in the United States each specified number
of years, by locality and by race of individual-Continued.
. This total includes persons not given in the localities, because within a locality no race was tabulated unless 10 or more schedules were secured.
Not computed, owing to small number involved.
A study of the foregoing table shows that of those immigrants reporting in the South 65.8 per cent have been in the United States less than five years, as compared with 37.4 per cent of those in Pennsylvania, 36.4 per cent of those in the Southwest, and 25.7 per cent of those in the Middle West. In the third section of the table under twenty years—it will be seen that, with the exception of the South, the relative position of the localities has undergone a change. The Middle West, by way of illustration, shows in the longer period of residence a higher per cent than the Southwest, whereas in the shorter period of residence the positions are reversed. Another interesting fact is that a larger proportion of the foreign-born in the Southwest than in any other locality have been in the United States over twenty years, while the smallest proportion with this period of residence is shown by the South.
To arrive at a clearer understanding of the distribution of the foreign-born throughout the several localities, by length of residence in the United States, the proportion of a race in one locality may be compared with the proportion of the same race in another. For example, 38.6 per cent of the Poles in Pennsylvania, as compared with 44.2 per cent of those in the Middle West, 69.4 per cent of those in the South, and 50.9 per cent of those in the Southwest have been in the United States less than five years, indicating that of the more recent arrivals of the Polish race a larger proportion than formerly have gone into other localities than Pennsylvania. Of the South Italians and North Italians in the Middle West, 32 per cent of the former and 22.2 per cent of the latter have been in the United States less than five years, as compared with 43.1 and 37.8 per cent, respectively, in Pennsylvania, 69.5 and 74.7 per cent, respectively, in the South, and 53.7 and 46.4 per cent, respectively, in the Southwest. The conclusion as to the Poles, above mentioned, will hold true of several other foreign races. Fifty per cent of the Russians in Pennsylvania, 43.7 per cent of the Croatians and 43.1 per cent of the South Italians, have been in the United States less than five years. Excepting the Irish, who report zero, the English in this locality,
with 12.1 per cent, show the smallest proportion with a residence of less than five years in the United States. Comparing these same races in the same locality for a longer period of residence, it will be seen that the Russians show 82.2 per cent, and the Croatians 78 per cent, less than ten years in the United States.
The proportion shown by the English is the same as in the shorter period of residence, and the Irish report 10 per cent to have lived in the United States less than ten years.
RACIAL CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES AT THE PRESENT TIME.
The following table shows the number of male employees of each race for whom information was secured:
TabLE 21.— Male employees for whom information was secured, by general nativity
a Less than 0.05 per cent. Upon reference to the above table it is seen that 21 per cent, or slightly more than one-fifth, of the total number of employees furnishing information, are native white of native father, and 7.6 per