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Among the individuals covered by the preceding table the highest average earnings are those of persons native-born of native father, with $560 a year. The persons native-born of foreign father average but $399 a year, while the foreign-born persons average $420 a year. The showing made by persons native-born of foreign father is poor because of the fact that the more ambitious and enterprising of these youths generally go into other work as soon as they are old enough, and consequently leave only the younger and less efficient in the industry.

The Germans have the highest average earnings of the immigrant races reporting, with a showing of $545 a year, followed by the Roumanians with $538, the English with $493, the Bohemians and Moravians with $463, the Irish, South Italians, Ruthenians, and Slovaks all earning about $450 a year, and the other races grouped between $360 and $425 a year. The difference in the average annual earnings of the English and Irish as compared with the whites native-born of native father is due chiefly to the fact that, from the district where these individuals are employed, most of the younger and more enterprising Irish and English workers have gone to take up similar work in fields where wages and conditions are better, and many of the older and the less enterprising, and therefore the less capable, males are represented in the above earnings. The percentages of persons earning specified amounts show that of all races of foreign birth only the Germans approach the native-born in relative numbers of persons in better-paid positions. The Croatians and Lithuanians, with 12.9 and 23.9 per cent, respectively, earning less than $200, indicate the lowest earning ability.

In the group composed of those earning under $400 a year, the persons native-born of native parents are far in the lead. Only 18.8 per cent are earning less than $400 a year, as contrasted with 56.7 per cent of the native-born of foreign father and 48.2 per cent of the total foreign-born. When the fact is considered that nearly one-half of the immigrants are earning under $400 a year, their economic condition is seen to be of a low order. With certain races this is even more clearly the case. The Germans and Ruthenians have relatively the lowest numbers in this group—the former showing 31 per cent and the latter 30.9 per cent. This is a distinctly better showing than those of the South Italians and Slovaks, with 40.4 and 41.9 per cent, respectively, earning less than $400 a year, and much better than the percentages reported for the Lithuanians and Croatians, with 62.8 per cent and 62 per cent, respectively. In considering the next group, made up of those earning under $600, it seems advisable, since this group includes both the preceding, to state the percentages earning $600 or over, which are derived by subtracting the percentages given in the table for the third group from 100.

This shows the relative numbers who are able to earn the larger amounts per year.

On the basis of such a showing, the group of persons native-born of native father is again far in the lead. Nearly one-half, or 47.9 per cent, earn $600 a year or over, as compared with 10 per cent of the persons native-born of foreign father and 13.5 per cent of the foreign-born. Among the foreign-born, the Germans lead with 37.9 per cent of their numbers earning $600 or more. The other foreign races_range from 29.4 per cent of the Roumanians to 2.5 per cent of the Russians earning over $600 a year. Of those earning $1,000 a year or over the numbers are very small. Only 1 person classed "as native-born of native parents, 1 German, 1 North Italian, and i Pole, are found earning as much as $1,000 a year. A general consideration of this table shows that the immigrant workers in this industry in the Pennsylvania bituminous regions must be content with relatively low earnings. This fact becomes more evident when it is considered that their average earnings are only $35 a month, and that 48.2 per cent are earning less than $33} per month and 86.5 per cent less than $50 per month, while only 3 in 1,789 receive as much as $1,000 per year. ACTUAL ANNUAL EARNINGS OF REPRESENTATIVES OF SELECTED RACES.

By way of supplementing and corroborating the preceding exhibits regarding annual average earnings of heads of families and specified annual earnings of individuals of the different races according to designated classifications, the following table, showing the total annual earnings of representative races for the year 1908, secured from the pay records of a coal and coke company, by specified occupation, will be of value: Table 183.- Actual annual earnings for 1908 of employees of selected representative races,

by occupation.

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For the reason that the above table includes only 17 coke and mine workers, no inference can be drawn from the table regarding the general level of earnings by occupations or races, with the possible exception of pick mining. The figures afford some interesting comparisons, however, regarding the relative earnings of the different races in the same occupations. In that they have been compiled from the pay records of a large and representative mining and coke company, they are also of value in practically verifying the information received from individual employees.

ANNUAL FAMILY INCOME.

The earnings of the heads of families having been considered, the annual family income of families whose heads are engaged in bituminous coal mining may be examined to ascertain to what extent the husband's earnings in the mines are supplemented from other sources, and the amount and importance of such supplementary sources of family income. In the two tables which follow the average annual family income, by race, together with the per cent of families having a total income of specified amounts, is shown by general nativity and race of head of family.

Table 184.Per cent of families having a total yearly income of each specified amount,

by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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a For selection of families, see Vol. II, p. 284. On comparing the average family income of the white persons native-born of native parents with that of the total for persons foreign-born of all races, it is seen that the income of the American family is 41.8 per cent greater than the average income of the immigrant family. It is also a significant fact that only 7.7 per cent of American families have an income between $300 and $500, as contrasted with 37.6 per cent of the total immigrant families having an income of this amount. Of the families of foreign birth 50.6 per cent have an income less than $500 a year, while only 15.4 per cent of the native-born families have an income less than this amount. Of the American or native white families 46.1 per cent receive an income between $500 and $750, as compared with 34 per cent of the foreignborn families; and 27 per cent of the American families have an income between $750 and $1,000 a year, as contrasted with 10.3 per cent of the total foreign-born having a similar income. More than four-fifths, or 84.6 per cent, of the households designated as nativeborn of native father receive an income above $500 annually, as against 49.4 per cent of the immigrant households which have an income of like amount.

As regards the different races, the Germans are far in advance of the other immigrant families in the amount of family income available. The average income of this race is $785, which is somewhat in excess of the average income of the American households, and is 43.8 per cent greater than the average income for foreign-born families. Only 20.8 per cent of the German families have an income less than $500. The income of the Lithuanian, Magyar, Russian, Ruthenian, and Slovak families is below the general average for immigrant families. Ten and seven-tenths per cent of the Slovak, 12.8 per cent of the Ruthenians, 11.4 per cent of the Russians, 25 per cent of the Lithuanians, and 18.2 per cent of the Magyars have a family income less than $300 a year. Though the average family income of both the Croatian and the North Italian is greater than that of the

total foreign-born, 19.4 per cent of the Croatian and 18.2 per cent of the North Italians report an income less than $300 a year.

Of the Ruthenian families 23.1 per cent receive an income between $300 and $500, and 61.5 per cent an income between $500 and $750 annually. Only 2.6 per cent of the families of this race have an income in excess of $750 a year. Of the Russian families 57.2 per cent have an income ranging between $300 and $500, and 25.7 per cent an income between $500 and $750, with no families receiving more than $1,000 a year.

Of the Polish families 37.9 per cent receive an income between $300 and $500, 40.7 per cent between $500 and $750, and 14.8 per cent an income greater than $750 a year. Of the Magyar households 42.6 per cent have an income between $300 and $500, and 30.1 per cent have between $500 and $750 annually. Of the Lithuanians 57.9 per cent are below $500 of annual income and 84.2 per cent below $750. Of the Croatian families 34.7 per cent depend upon an income which is between $300 and $500 and an equal per cent upon an income between $500 and $750 a year. Only 11.2 per cent of the Croatian households have an income in excess of $750 a year. Of the North Italians 17.5 per cent also have an income above $750 annually, while 28.5 per cent are between $500 and $750 and 35.8 per cent between $300 and $500. Of the South Italians 18.6 per cent have a family income above $750 a year, while 32.2 per cent of the families of the same race receive an income between $500 and $750 a year and 40.7 per cent between $300 and

$500 a year.

WIVES AT WORK. The extent to which the families of the different races have yearly incomes of specified amounts has now been set forth. The following table shows the extent to which the wives of mine employees are engaged in regular paid employment and the average income of those at work: Table 185.— Wives at work, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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The highest percentage of wives employed, it will be noticed, occurs among the native white families, among which 3.8 per cent are at work. The conclusion to be drawn from the table as a whole is obviously that practically none of the wives of the mine workers are employed for wages. One native-born wife out of 26, and 6. foreignborn out of 1,194, or less than 1 per cent of the total number of wives, are at work. This condition is due, as has been previously stated, to the fact that there is little or no opportunity in the mining villages for wives to work outside of the home. The wife of native birth receives an annual income of $338, and the 6 foreign-born wives earn an average annual wage of $100.

ANNUAL EARNINGS OF FEMALES 18 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER IN THE HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The situation becomes more apparent when all the females 18 years of age or over in the households studied, who are working for wages, are considered. The next table, which is submitted below, shows the number of such females who are earning specified amounts, as well as their average annual earnings:

TABLE 186.— Yearly earnings (approximate) of females 18 years of age or over, by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

Upon examining the above table it is seen that only 20 females report themselves as working for wages. Of this total, 13 are native-born and only 7 are of foreign birth. Of the 13 native-born, however, 10 are Irish, German, English, Bohemian, and Slovak women of the second generation, most of whom are doubtless employed as domestic servants. Their average annual earnings are $317, and the average earnings of the foreign-born are $264. The conclusion, in short, is obvious that a very small number of the women of the households of coal-mining employees are working for wages, and the earnings of the small percentage thus engaged scarcely

nstitute any appreciable part of the family incomes.

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