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relatively short periods of residence. Of the 1,849 Croatians furnishing information only 171 have been in this country ten years or over, as compared with 1,035 who have been here less than five years; of the 3,153 North Italians only 602 have been residents ten years or more, and 1,488 have been here less than five years; of the 5,639 Poles, one of the earliest of the recent immigrating races to enter the Pennsylvania mines, the figures are 2,492, 1,748, and 1,399, according to groups of less than five, five to nine, and ten years' residence and over, respectively. The Poles furnish an illustration of a much more even distribution by length of residence than the Croatians, and in this connection it is significant that the Poles show less difference in the relative numbers earning the large amounts when the second and third periods of length of residence are considered, as compared with the Croatians. The Slovaks, another of the earlier races of the recent immigrants, afford almost a parallel case with the Poles.

This condition of affairs brings up another important consideration that must be borne in mind when studying the foregoing table, and that is the fact that by far the greater number of all the individuals of the recent immigrating races were farmers, farm laborers, or other unskilled laborers abroad, while, on the contrary, large numbers of the English, Irish, Scotch, and Germans were experienced in mine work before coming to this country. The races of recent immigration, therefore, would be expected to show much greater relative progress in earning ability after a short period of residence, for the reason that they begin work knowing practically nothing of the industry. On the other hand, the experienced English, Germans, Irish, and Scotch stand well up in the scale of earnings at the outset.

ANNUAL EARNINGS OF MALE HEADS OF FAMILIES STUDIED.

In addition to the extent to which the races are earning specified amounts per day and the relation between period of residence and earning ability, it will be of even greater value in discussing earnings to carry the presentation further and consider the annual earnings of the different races of immigrant mine workers. A comparison of the yearly earnings of the foreign-born with those of persons native-born will also be of importance in arriving at a conclusion regarding the economic status of the immigrant mining employee.

In the investigation of households of immigrant mining employees information was secured as to the general economic condition of the families, together with the annual earnings of the head and the male members of the households who were working in or around the mines. From this detailed study the table next presented has been prepared, showing, by general nativity and race, the number and per cent of husbands at work, and their average annual earnings.

TABLE 180.-Husbands at work, by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

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a For selection of families, see Vol. II, p. 284. b Not computed, owing to small number involved.

It will be observed from this table that, with the exception of the Germans, all the husbands reporting are at work. This feature, which in the case of other industries would be significant, has no special importance in connection with the coal-mining industry, for the reason that the tabulation covers families resident in coal-mining villages or connected with the coal-mining industry. The coalmining industry gives opportunity for employment to males alone, and unless a son can take the husband's place as head, those families in which the husbands can no longer engage in mining move out of the mining towns and seek other employment for their members. In this connection it must be remembered that in the isolated coalmining villages there is almost no opportunity for women to find remunerative employment.

As regards the average yearly earnings, some variations occur among the different races, which are discussed in detail below, but as a whole the earnings are relatively low. This may be due in part to a low scale of pay, but it is due also to the conditions of employment in the industry. For the majority of employees work is irregular, and during the year many days are lost. In most districts the mines operate less than two hundred and fifty working days in the year, and even when reported as operating the force may be much reduced. This large number of days lost materially reduces the total earnings for the year.

The average yearly earnings of the husbands are affected by both the relative efficiency and the relative position in the industry, of the various races represented. It will be observed that the native white husbands have the highest average yearly earnings. This is due not so much to the greater efficiency of this group of earners, as

their earnings.

to the fact that more of them are in the better-paid occupations, positions entailing responsibility, such as that of foreman, or requiring technical knowledge, such as that of engineer. To a certain extent this is true of the Germans, though industriousness is also an important factor. The English show a much lower average as compared with either of the two races mentioned above. This is partly due to the fact that for a number of years the more progressive and ambitious English and Irish immigrant workers have been leaving the nonunion districts of Pennsylvania and going into other coal fields. In consequence of this movement the English and Irish as races occupy less advantageous positions in the industry in Pennsylvania than do the natives, and this situation is reflected in

Of the races of more recent immigration the South Italians, Poles, and Slovaks show the highest earnings. The South Italian stands higher than the North Italian. This is largely ascribable to the fact that the South Italian seeks employment more often as a mine, yard, or other laborer at a day wage than as a miner or other pieceworker and is less affected by partial or occasional cessation of operations in the mine or coke plant than is the North Italian, who is more frequently a pick miner, loader, or other pieceworker. The Polish and Slovak races owe their relatively high positions to greater efficiency and longer service in the industry. By many mine superintendents and employers they are considered the best races employed in the rank and file of the industry and the above showing only confirms this judgment of their efficiency. Although as long in service as the Polish and Slovak races, the Magyar shows a lower earning power.

Of the total number of 1,214 male heads of families reporting, 1,188, with average yearly earnings of $427, were foreign-born, while 26 heads of families reporting average annual earnings of $586 were whites native-born of native father.

At this point it will be profitable to take into consideration another tabulation, which repeats the average earnings of the mining employees and shows also the number of representatives of the different races who are earning, annually, specified amounts. From an examination of this table, which is next submitted, it may be seen which races are above or below the general average for the foreign-born, and to what extent the members of a given race are earning designated amounts.

Table 181.-Earnings per year of male heads of families, by general nativity and race of

individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only male heads of selected families. For selection of families, see Vol. II, p. 284.]

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A comparison of the foreign-born with the native whites reported in the above table is of interest in that it shows a marked contrast in the yearly earnings of the two groups. Of the foreign-born, 47.9 per cent receive less than $400 per year, as against 15.4 per cent of the native whites; also, only 15.7 per cent of the foreign-born earn over $600, as compared with 53.8 per cent of the whites native-born of native father.

The foreign-born may be properly classified in three groups: (1) The pioneer English and German employees; (2) the older of the nonEnglish-speaking races, such as the North Italians, Slovaks, Slovenians, and Lithuanians; (3) the more recent arrivals of foreign birth-the Russians, Ruthenians, Croatians, Poles, Magyars, South Italians, and other races of smaller numerical importance.

As will be noted from the above table, the English and Germans average more per year than do the other immigrant races. At the same time their average annual earnings are not so high as those of the native whites.

Of this first class it may be noted that only 27.3 per cent of the Germans earn less than $100, this being a smaller proportion than that shown for any other race of the foreign-born, while 4.5 per cent, the highest in this group, earn over $1,000 annually.

Of the second group, composed of the earlier non-English-speaking immigrants, 41.7 per cent of the Slovaks earn under $400, as against 64.7 per cent of the North Italians and 65.8 per cent of the Lithuanians. A comparison of members of these same races who earn less than $600 shows that the Slovaks report 81.2 per cent, the North Italians 87.5 per cent, and the Lithuanians 89.5 per cent. In the third and last group, consisting of races of most recent immigration, the Lithuanians report the smallest proportion earning under $400 annually, or 35.9 per cent, while the Russians report the largest, or 64.7 per cent. None of the Croatians, Russians, and Ruthenians earn over $800 annually, while 5.1 per cent of the South Italians, 2.8 per cent of the Poles, and 1.4 per cent of the Magyars earn this amount or more.

ANNUAL EARNINGS OF MALES 18 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER IN THE

HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED. A greater number of individuals are covered by the table which is next presented. This tabulation, in addition to the heads of families, includes all other male members in the households studied who are working in the mines, and shows by general nativity and race of individuals 18 years of age or over, the average annual earnings, as well as the number and per cent earning specified amounts. TABLE 182.— Yearly earnings (approximate) of males 18 years of age or over, by general

nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

General nativity and race of individual.

Number
Number earning-

Per cent earning-
working
for wages Average
and re- earnings. Under Under Under Under Under Under Under Under
porting

$200. $400. $600. $1,000. $200. $400. $600. $1,000. amount.

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Native-born of native

father, White Native-born of foreign father, by race

of
father:
Bohemian and Mo-

ravian.
English.
Gerinan.
Irish..
Italian, North.
Lithuanian.
Polish..
Ruthenian

Slovak..
Foreign-born:
Bohemian and Mo-

ravian.
Bosnian.
Croatian.
English.
German.
Irish.
Italian, North.
Italian, South
Lithuanian.
Magyar..
Polish.
Roumanian
Russian.
Ruthenian
Slovak
Slovenian

Grand total..
Total native-born of for-
eign father.
Total native-born.
Total foreign-born..

100.0 (c) 100.0

21

1 171 17 29 12 167

99 113

42.9 (a) 62.0 (a) 31.0

19

1 155 12 18 10 146

(a)

9

1 106

7 9

3 103 40 71 93 148

463 (a)

372 493 545 458 389 450 365 391 422 538 368 448 446 363

(a)

21

1 171 17 28 12 166

99 113 171 304

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90.5 (a) 90.6 (a) 62.1 (a) 87.4 85.9 86.7 88.9 88.9 70.6 97.5 85. 1 84.6 (a)

34

61.7 40.4 62.8 54.4 48.5

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98 152 271 24 39 80 422 15

305 34 40 94 499 16

96.6 (a)

99.4 100.0 100.0 100.0

99.7 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 (c)

23

29 209 11

40 94 499 16

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60 107 1, 786

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100.0 99. 1 99.8

7 149

79 1,547

56.7 39.8 48. 2

90.0 73. 1 86.5

a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

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