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the races of recent immigration, the Bohemians and Moravians, North Italians, Lithuanians, Russians, and Slovenians, make the best showing. The next two groups, consisting of mining employees earning $3 and over and those earning $3.50 and over per day, simply serve to bring out further the differences already noted. The leading position is occupied by the English, Scotch, Welsh, German, and Irish immigrants and their children born in this country. This is significant and is of interest in connection with the fact that many of the immigrants of these races have been mine employees abroad, and consequently entered the industry here with valuable experience, while the later immigrants were mostly farmers or farm laborers, and hence inexperienced when entering the industry.

The English, Irish, Welsh, Scotch, and German immigrants also came to the bituminous regions prior to the great expansion of the industry and were ready to advance to positions of responsibility and better pay which the development of the industry made available. The relatively poor showing made by the group of persons native-born of native father is due to the fact that the children in this classification have been steadily leaving the industry for more attractive vocations, and consequently an undue proportion of the less skilled, less ambitious, and less enterprising, are enumerated in this group, and the poorer showing is the result to be expected.

In connection with the earnings of the adult mine employees it is also of importance to consider the earnings of the mine workers who have not reached maturity. The following table therefore is presented, showing, by general nativity and race, the per cent of males 14 but under 18 years of age who are earning specified amounts per day. TABLE 177.Per cent of male employees 14 and under 18 years of age earning each specified

amount per day, by general nativity and race. *

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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* This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

In the foregoing table, as in the case of the preceding tables, the races are presented according to general nativity in three groups: those native-born of native father, those native-born of foreign father, and those foreign-born. In general, there is little difference in earning capacity between the first two, 95.2 per cent of the whites native-born of native father earning $1 or over per day as compared with 95.8 per cent of the persons native-born of foreign father. In the wage class composed of those earning $1.25 or over the percentages are 64.9 for the whites native-born of native father and 61.1 for the persons native-born of foreign father. Fifty and two-tenths per cent of the whites native-born of native father and 49.4 per cent of the second generation earn $1.50 or more per day; and 16.9 per cent of the whites native-born of native father and 22.6 per cent of the persons native-born of foreign father earn $2 or over per day. In the last class, consisting of those earning $2.50 or over per day, between 3 and 4 per cent of both groups of native-born are found.

Compared with the persons native-born of native father and the group native-born of foreign father, the foreign-born youths have a higher percentage in the higher wage classes, the average percentages for the foreign-born by wage classes as compared with the total nativeborn being as follows:

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This showing, apparently so unfavorable to the native-born males of these ages, may be readily explained. Almost all of the native-born youths attend school and become Americanized, and the more enterprising and ambitious soon seek employment in other industries than coal mining, where the work is more pleasant or the wages are better. On the other hand, the greater number of foreign-born youths do not know English and do not attend school, but go into the mines as soon as possible and remain there. Consequently, the fact that the numbers of the foreign-born earning larger amounts are relatively greater is a result which would be expected from the existing situation.

From a racial standpoint, the North Italians show the highest earning ability among the foreign-born, followed by the Magyar youths. The lowest earning capacity is found among the Poles. Among the group native-born of foreign father, the English, Germans, and Scotch are the leaders. RELATION BETWEEN PERIOD OF RESIDENCE AND EARNING ABILITY.

As regards the earning ability of foreign-born mining employees, one of the most interesting points that arises is the question of relation between earnings and period of residence, or, in other words, the question whether a more extended period of residence brings with it a greater industrial efficiency and adaptation among

the foreignborn and consequently an increased earning capacity. This inquiry is answered in the tables next submitted, which show, by race, the per cent of foreign-born male employees who earn specified amounts and who have been in the United States a specified number of years, Table 178.- Per cent of foreign-born male employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified amount per day, by race and length of residence in the United States. *

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only races with 200 or more males reporting.)

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Bohemian and Moravian:

Under 5.. 5 to 9..

10 or over. Croatian:

Under 5. 5 to 9.

10 or over.. English:

Under 5. 5 to 9..

10 or over.. French:

Under 5. 5 to 9..

10 or over.. Gerinan:

Under 5. 5 to 9.

10 or over.. Irish:

Under 5. 5 to 9.

10 or over. Italian, North:

Under 5. 5 to 9..

10 or over. Italian, South:

Under 5.. 5 to 9..

10 or over.. Lithuanian:

Under 5. 5 to 9..

10 or over.. Magyar:

Under 5. 5 to 9...

10 or over. Polish:

Under 5. 5 to 9..

10 or over.. Russian:

Under 5. 5 to 9..

10 and over Ruthenian:

.Under 5. 5 to 9..

10 or over.. Scotch:

Under 5. 5 to 9...

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5.6

10 or over. Slovak:

Under 5., 5 to 9.

10 or over. Slovenian:

l'nder 5. 5 to 9..

10 or over. Swedish:

Under 5.
5 to 9..
10 or over.

72
46
397

100.0
100.0
98.5

98.6
100.0
97.5

93. 1
87.0
85. 4

45.8
50.0
42.6

26.4
15. 2
13.9

3, 133
3,039
2,908

95. 7
97.8
97.7

88.7
94. 4
94. 6

48.3
58. 4
60.0

9. 7
15.4
15.6

1.6
3. 4
3. 2

664
546
260

96.7
97.1
99.2

93. 5
95. 2
97.3

73. 2
78. 9
80.0

24.8
36. 1
35.4

5. 3
6. 6
7.7

8 1.1 1.2

15
22
172

100.0
100.0
98. 8

100.0
100.0
98. 3

93. 3
95.5
86.6

13. 3 54. 5

6.7 22. 7 16.3

136 5.2

38. 4

* This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

TABLE 179.-Comparative earnings per day of

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only races with 200 or more males reporting.]

IN UNITED STATES LESS THAN 5 YEARS.

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age or over, by race and length of foreign-born male employees 18 years of

residence the

Race.

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Slovenian.

Swedish.

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1,399

217

70 397 2,908 260

172

99. 1

95.4

98.7

94.9

94.6

100.0

97.4

97.9

96.6

97.9

92.3

97. 1

91.2

100.0

IN UNITED STATES 5 TO 9 YEARS.

95.7

96.7

100.0

98.0

98.0

98.8

96.6

98.5

100.0

97.6

97.9

93.8

98.7

93.7

99.4

98.4

100.0

97.8

97.1

100.0

96.3

98.8

97.9

93.9

94.5

96.9

97.5

98.7

91.4

$1.50 or
over.

98.8

92.0

99.1

91.2

84. 1

97.4

93.2

91.6

100.0

100.0

98.5

97.7

99.2

93.8

89.8

93.6

90.6

86.0

91.8

79.6

98.6

88.7

93.5

100.0

94. 1

90.8

98.8

92. 1

95.9

100. 0

95.4

94. 1

92.0

94.5

89.5

96.8

93.8

100.0

94.4

95.2

100.0

IN UNITED STATES 10 YEARS OR OVER.

89.9

95.3

96.9

$2 or over.

89.7

90.7

93.2

73.5

41.7

82.8

81.4

69.3

78.6

67.1

96.3

93.0

89.3

93.6

88.7

97.2

94. 3

97.5

94.6

97.3

98.3

47.2

75.9

61.4

54.2

67.4

36.5

93. 1

48.3

73.2

93.3

79.4

54.3

89.0

74.2

74.0

87.5

74.3

61.6

78.2

68.7

63.0

79.0

56.3

87.0

58. 4

78.9

95.5

$2.50 or

over.

69.3

63.2

84.0

68.5

67.1

64.3

75.9

60.7

74.9

65.5

60.2

83.9

70.0

85.4

60.0

80.0

86.6

27.4

9.3

31. 1

25.4

26.5

35.7

24.0

14.4

25.6

9.9

12.6

23.3

10.9

45.8

9.7

24.8

13.3

35.3

15. 4

39.0

25.8

30.6

37.5

29.2

22.9

36.9

16.6

15.8

33.4

21.9

50.0

15.4

36. 1
54.5

31.7

22.2

41.0

32.7

25.1

27.5

29.4

22.3

31.0

21.3

15.6

32.7

14.3

42.6

15.6

35.4

38.4

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98.8

*This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

48296°-VOL 6-11-20

In the preceding tables the different races fall into two distinct groups-(i) those races in which the relative numbers of persons earning the larger amounts per day generally increase with length of residence in the United States, and (2) those races in which the relative numbers of those earning the larger amounts decrease with length of residence in the United States. In the first group are the principal races of recent immigration, such as the Croatians, North and South Italians, Magyars, Poles, Russians, and Slovaks. A brief examination of the tables shows that in every wage class the Croatians have an increase of relative numbers with length of residence. By way of illustration, among the Croatians who earn $2 and over are only 41.7 per cent of those who have been in the United States less than five

years, in contrast with 63.2 per cent of those here ten years and more. In the class earning at least $2.50 per day are found 9.3 per cent of the Croatians who have been in this country less than five years, as compared to 22.2 per cent of those who have resided here more than ten years. These tendencies are found to be generally true also of the other races of recent immigration.

In the second general group are the races of earlier immigration, such as the English, Irish, German, Welsh, and Scotch. Among these races length of residence results in little, if any, increase of the relative numbers in the higher wage groups. This situation is especially manifest where the immigrants of ten or more years' residence are compared with those of five to nine years. Such a comparison uniformly shows a decrease among those of longer residence, though the five to nine year class may show an increase over the residents of less than five years. Taking the Irish race, by way of example, it is seen that in the class earning $2 or more per day the percentages for less than five, five to nine, and over ten years of residence, are 78.6 per cent, 87.5 per cent, and 64.3 per cent, respectively, while in the next wage class, consisting of those earning $2.50 per day and over, the percentages are 35.7 per cent, 37.5 per cent, and 27.5 per cent, respectively. These conditions do not mean, however, that the races of older immigration are less progressive in the industry than are the races of recent immigration, but are due to the fact that, of the earlier immigrant races, many who have resided in this country over ten years have either left the mining industry entirely or moved away from the Pennsylvania bituminous regions, while those that remain are now becoming old and their earning power has begun to diminish. This situation is clearly illustrated by the large numbers of men of these races resident in the United States ten years or more, as compared with those of a shorter period of residence.

Of the 618 Irish from whom information was secured, 574 have been residents ten years or more; of the 1,223 English, 990; of the 1,454 Germans, 1,092; and of the 515 Scotch, 397. On the other hand, the races of more recent immigration, such as the Slovaks, Poles, Croatians, and North and South Italians, have not advanced to the stage where the more enterprising are leaving the industry, nor have so many reached an age of diminishing earning capacity as in the case of the English, Scotch, Irish, and Germans. Among the races of recent immigration the greatest numbers occur not in the groups of oldest residence in the United States, as in the case of the races of older immigration cited above, but in the groups of

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