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Per cent of foreign-born male employees in the United States each specified number of years, by race. [This chart shows only races with 300 or more employees reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

= UNDER 5 YEARS

= 5 TO 19 YEARS

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= 20 YEARS OR OVER

TABLE 17.- Per cent of foreign-born male employees in the United States each specified

number of years, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is

made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The total, however is for all foreign-born.)

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Forty-four races are represented in the 54,300 foreign-born employees, and each of 27 races has 40 or more male employees reporting. Of the total of 54,300 employees furnishing information, 20,569, or 37.9 per cent, have been in the United States under five years; 16,088, or 29.6 per cent, have been here from five to nine years; 4,582, or 8.4 per cent, from ten to fourteen years; 4,875, or 9 per cent, from fifteen to nineteen years; and 8,186, or 15.1 per cent, twenty years or more. It can thus be seen that 67.5 per cent, or over two-thirds, of all individuals reporting information have been in the United States under ten years.

By a general reference to the tables already given it is found that English, Irish, Scotch, Welsh, and German immigration to the industry has decreased greatly during the past fifteen years, and that immigration from southern and eastern European countries has increased materially during that period.

The showing made by the Irish is remarkable. Out of a total of 916 individuals studied, 80.6 per cent have resided in the United States for twenty years or more, 6.6 per cent have been here from fifteen to nineteen years, 3.1 per cent have been here from ten to fourteen years, 4 per cent from five to nine years, and 5.8 per cent under

A similar showing is afforded by the Welsh. Of a total of 397 individuals studied, 78.3 per cent have been in the United States for twenty years or more, 6 per cent have been here from fifteen to nine

five years.

teen years, 4.5 per cent from ten to fourteen years, 2.8 per cent from five to nine years, and 8.3 per cent under five years. Out of a total of 1,139 Scotch individuals reporting, 66.4 per cent have resided in the United States for twenty years or more, 6.3 per cent have been here from fifteen to nineteen years, 2.5 per cent have been here from ten to fourteen years, 10.1 per cent have been here from five to nine years, and 14.7 per cent under five years. Aside from the preponderance of those who have been in the United States for twenty years or more, the most interesting fact in connection with this race is that the number of those who have been in this country under ten years is greatly in excess of those who have been here from ten to nineteen years. The course of English immigration has been not unlike that of the Scotch. Of the English, 65.2 per cent have been in the United States for twenty years or more, 5.6 per cent have been here from fifteen to nineteen years, 3.2 per cent from ten to fourteen years, 9.4 per cent from five to nine years, and 16.6 per cent under five years. English immigration into the coal industry has, therefore, like the Scotch, evidently increased during the past ten years over what it was between ten and twenty years ago. Out of a total of 2,677 German employees, 45.7 per cent have resided in the United States for twenty years or longer, 20.5 per cent have been here from fifteen to nineteen years, 4.5 per cent from ten to fourteen years, 13.6 per cent from five to nine years, and 15.8 per cent under five years. It is apparent, therefore, that the immigration into the bituminous coal industry of English, Irish, Scotch, Welsh, and Germans has decreased during the past twenty years, and that these races are now entering the industry in relatively small numbers.

On the other hand, it will be seen that immigration from the southeastern European countries has increased steadily and has supplanted that just described. Out of a total of 2,416 Croatian mine workers, 54.4 per cent report that they have resided in the United States under five years; 35.5 per cent have resided here from five to nine years, 5.3 per cent from ten to fourteen years, 3.5 per cent from fifteen to nineteen years, and 1.2 per cent for twenty years or more. In other words, 89.9 per cent of all Croatian individuals reporting this information have resided in the United States less than ten years. The course of Magyar immigration into this country runs almost parallel with that of the Croatians. Out of a total of 4,543 Magyar individuals reporting, 50.6 per cent have been in the United States under five years, 32.1 per cent have been here from five to nine years, 7.3 per cent from ten to fourteen years, 6.5 per cent from fifteen to nineteen years, and 3.4 per cent for twenty years or more.

Of 4,239 South Italians furnishing information, 44.9 per cent have been in the United States under five years, 37.5 per cent from five to nine years, 8.9 per cent from ten to fourteen years, 5.3 per cent from fifteen to nineteen years, and 3.4 per cent for twenty years or more. North Italian immigration into the coal industry, as a whole, started somewhat earlier than did that from South Italy. Of a total of 6,622 North Italians, 41.1 per cent have resided in the United States under five years, 36 per cent from five to nine years, 9.5 per cent from ten to fourteen years, 8.3 per cent from fifteen to nineteen years, and 5.1 per cent for twenty years or more. A residence in the United States of less than five years is reported by 36.7 per cent of the 11,272

Slovaks, 42.9 per cent of the 7,316 Poles, and 25.5 per cent of the 1,885 Lithuanians. A more exhaustive examination only serves to show more clearly that immigrants from Great Britain and northern Europe are no longer in large numbers entering the bituminous coalmining industry, and that the new labor forces are being recruited from races of recent immigration from southern and eastern Europe.

Data as to period of residence were also secured from the members of the households investigated. This information is set forth in the following series of tables, the first of which shows, by general nativity and race, the per cent of persons in the households studied who have been in the United States each specified number of years. TABLE 18.Per cent of foreign-born persons in the United States each specified number

of years, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (By years the United States is meant years nce first arrival in the Un States. No deduction is made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 20 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

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The above table shows clearly how large a proportion of the various races have been in the United States less than five years and how small a per cent have had a residence of twenty years or over.

Of the 6,756 persons reporting complete data 42.7 per cent have been in the country under five years, 70.5 per cent under ten years, and 90.8 per cent under twenty years. For comparison, the various races may be again separated into two distinct groups, one the older, and the other the more recent immigrants; the first named to include English, French, German, Irish, Scotch, and Welsh, and the second the races from southern and eastern Europe. To this first group should also be added the Mexicans, 15.4 per cent of whom have been in the United States for more than twenty years and only 10.6 per cent under five years, the smallest per

cent shown by any race as having a five-year period of residence of the older immigrants, the largest proportion with a residence in this country of less than five years is shown by the Germans and English, who report 44.1 and 41.9 per cent, respectively,

while the smallest proportion among the older immigrants, with the exception of the Mexicans, is shown by the Irish, 16.2 per cent of whom have been in the United States less than five years. The Irish are immediately followed by the French, with 16.7 per cent, while the Scotch and Welsh show 20.5 and 25 per cent, respectively. Of the second group four races, the Roumanians, Russians, Bohemians and Moravians, and South Italians, each show over 50 per cent of their number as having been in the United States less than five years, the Roumanians showing the largest proportion, or 69.2 per cent, and the South Italians, with 56.4 per cent, the lowest. Of the other races included in this group the proportions range from 49.7 per cent for the Poles to 27.3 per cent for the Lithuanians. The above table shows that a much larger per cent of the first than of the second group have been in the United States for more than twenty years. Of the first group the Irish show the largest proportion, or 78.8 per cent, with a residence of over twenty years, and the Mexicans, with 15.4 per cent, the lowest; while of the second group the proportions range from 16.7 per cent for the Bohemians and Moravians to zero for the Roumanians.

As regards period of residence in the United States of foreign-born male employees, by locality and by race, the table presented below is instructive.

TABLE 19.Per cent of foreign-born male employees in the United States each specified

number of years, by locality and by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is

made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting in each of two or more localities. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

IN UNITED STATES UNDER 5 YEARS.

Race.

Middle
West.

Pennsyl-
vania.

South.

South-
West.

Total bituminous

coal mining.

(a)

63. 2

Bohemian and Moravian.
Croatian,
English.
French.
German
Irish.
Italian, North
Italian, South
Lithuanian.
Magyar..
Polish.
Russian..
Scotch..
Slovak.
Slovenian
Swedish.
Welsh..

35.7
21.5
25.5
22.4
17.1

9.6 29.1 34.4 21.9 39.7 30.6 32.8 19.4 18.0 31.3 7.5 6.9

26.2 56.6 12.5 20.1 12.0

4.4 47.7 47.0 32.0 52.7 44.4 56.6 14.8 37.8 46.2 7.9 9.9

12.8 (a) 50.0

0 43.5 46.4 22.0 51.3 47.7 71.6

5.9
45.0

34.5
(a)
(a)

(a)
(a)

11.0 26.4 19.9 13.0 38.4 40.7 24.0 39.6 39.8 28. 3

9.5
43.0

40.0
(a)
(a)

29.7
54.4
16.6
23. 2
15.8

5.8 41.1 44.9 25.5 50.6 42.9 50.7 14. 7 36.7 44.5 7.5 8.3

Total..

26.0

40.3

48.4

33.1

37.9

a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

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