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TABLE 175.-Number of employees of each race in the bituminous coal mines and coke plants, by occupation-Continued.

NUMBER 8. (COAL MINE AND COKE PLANT.)

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TABLE 175.—Number of employees of each race in the bituminous coal mines and coke plants, by occupation-Continued.

NUMBER 9. (COAL MINE AND COKE PLANT.)

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TABLE 175.—Number of employees of each race in the bituminous coal mines and coke plants, by occupation-Continued.

NUMBER 10. (COAL MINE AND COKE PLANT.)

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1 Blacksmith. Carpenter..

Mason..

Mason tender.
Fireman..
Coal shooter.
Teamster..
Timberman.

Coke leveler..
Pumper.
Car dropper.

Road man
Brattice man
Tipple man
Check man
Lamp cleaner..
Stableman.

Greaser.

Car shifter.

Carter.

Charger.

Driver.

Coke laborers. Inside laborers. Coke drawers. Pick miner.

Total..

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DAILY EARNINGS.

The industrial condition of the foreign-born mine workers before they came to this country, as well as their status in the mining industry in Pennsylvania at the present time, having been briefly presented, it will be in order to put forward an exhibit of the earnings of the immigrant mining employees in the occupations which they are now following. For comparative purposes, the earnings of the nativeborn of native father and the native-born of foreign father are presented along with the earnings of foreign-born mine workers. In connection with the discussion of earnings, the table which is first submitted shows the per cent of males 18 years of age or over earning each specified amount per day, by general nativity and race of individual. This table follows:

TABLE 176.-Per cent of male employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified amount per day, by general nativity and race.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 80 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.] Per cent earning each specified amount per day.

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Number

Aver-
age

reporting earn-
complete
ings
data.
per day.

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$1.25 or $1.50 or
over.

over.

2.18

2.30

2.43

96.0

93.5

95.3

90.6

97.4

96.4

97.5

96.2

98.4

96.5

98.8 97.7

98.9 98.3

97.5 94.8
98.1
91.9
94.0 91.7

98.3

92.3

92.7

94.9

$2 or
over.

45,052 2.07 96.8 92.9
3,627 2.20
97.5 95.8
10, 178 2.17 97.9 95.7
34,874 2.04 96.5 92.0

70.1

60.0

54. 4

81.1

70.5

72.1

84.8

89.4

$2.50 or
over.

27.9

17.9

2.18

97.5 91.2

72.7

1.90

96.6 87.5

48.1

2.32

98.0 97.1

84.2

39.7

2.09

72.5

29.4

94.9
95.0

91.1
91.5 68.3

2.09

26.0

2.14

97.1 93.7 65.5

28.2

2.11

26.8

71.2
54.8

1.97

18.9

2.17

76.4 31.4

1.98

64.4

13.9

1.95

87.8

58.4

14.3

1.85

89.8

52.0

9.2

94.1

73.3

27.6

2.11 98.0
1.95 95.2

86.7

49.8

14.4

2.35

97.9

86.6

43.7

95. 1

48.8

12.2

92.4

55.2

13.4

98.8
1.91 97.6
1.99 97.0
2.14 97.3 94.8
2.33 99.0 98.6 88.0
2.27 98.3 97.8 82.0

76.5

30.9

38.3

40.4

64.6

22.1

73.8 34.8
79.5 29.5
62.9 19.9

18.5

42.7

32.5

30.5

42.9

52.2

31.4

12.6

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*This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

A noteworthy feature of the above table is seen in the fact that very few persons of any race earn less than $1.25 per day. A considerably less proportion of the native-born than of the foreign-born earn this low wage. The Poles, among the foreign-born, with about

.

1 in 14 in this class, have relatively the greatest number of these small wage-earners. The next group, consisting of those earning $1.50 per day or over, shows but little change from the preceding column. Of the native-born, 95.7 per cent earn $1.50 or over per day, as compared with 97.9 per cent who earn $1.25. Among the foreign-born, the table shows 92 per cent in the $1.50 group, as against 96.5 per cent in the $1.25 group. This small general change in the percentage figures is due to the fact that for nearly all the employees in the industry the general level of daily earnings is above $1.50. In the next group, however, which includes those earning $2 and over per day, this limit has been reached for an appreciable number of workers. Many cokeyard and mine laborers who are paid on a day basis receive less than $2. The less efficient piecoworkers are also affected when the $2-rate of daily wages is reached. Of the native-born, 95.7 per cent earn $1.50 and over per day, while only 70.5 per cent earn $2 and over per day, or, to use another mode of expressing the same comparison, 25.2 per cent earn between $1.50 and $2 per day. Among the foreign-born the falling off is still greater, 92 per cent of the immigrant mine workers being found in the preceding group as compared with 62.9 per cent in the group earning $2 or more per day, showing 29.1 per cent to be earning between $1.50 and $2. * If this comparison be restricted to the foreign-born of the races of recent immigration, the proportionate decrease is much greater. The older immigrant races do not show such decreases as do the later and, therefore, raise the general average for the foreign-born. The English drop from 97.1 per cent in the group earning $1.50 or more per day to 84.2 per cent in the group earning $2 or more per day; the Irish, from 93.7 per cent to 65.5 per cent; the Scotch, from 97.9 per cent to 86.6 per cent; the Swedish, from 98.6 per cent to 88 per cent; the Germans, from 91.5 per cent to 68.3 per cent; and the Welsh, from 97.8 per cent to 82 per cent. On the other hand, among the races of recent immigration from southern and eastern Europe, the Croatians drop from 87.5 per cent in the group earning $1.50 or more per day to 48.1 per cent in the group earning $2 or more per day; the South Italians, from 91.9 per cent to 54.8 per cent; the Poles, from 87.8 per cent to 58.4 per cent; the Servians from 95.1 per cent to 48.8 per cent; the Ruthenians, from 86.7 per cent to 49.8 per cent; the Roumanians, from 89.8 per cent to 52 per cent; and the Slovaks, from 92.4 per cent to 55.2 per cent. This is also true of the native-born of foreign father; those of Austro-Hungarian parentage show the greatest falling off in earning capacity in this group. Of the later immigrating races, the North Italian, with 71.2 per cent, the Lithuanian, with 76.4 per cent, the Russian, with 73.3 per cent, the Slovenian, with 76.5 per cent, the Bohemian and Moravian, with 72.9 per cent, and the Magyar, with 64.4 per cent, in the group earning $2 per day or over, show relatively the highest earning capacity. The next group, composed of those earning $2.50 or more than $2.50 per day, shows that 29.5 per cent of the nativeborn and 19.9 per cent of the foreign-born earn this amount. This group also accentuates differences in relative efficiency and position in the industry among the different races. The second generation English, Scotch, and Irish, and the English, Scotch, and Welsh foreign-born, have relatively the largest numbers in this group. Of

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