« iepriekšējāTurpināt »
In the preceding table 98.4 per cent, or almost all, of the total of 1,290 females of foreign birth are seen to be at home, as compared with 90 per cent of the total native-born of native father, and 69.2 per cent of the native-born of foreign father. Of the total number of native-born, 9.8 per cent are in domestic or personal service, 4.3 per cent are in trade, and 6.1 per cent are at school. Only 1.7 per cent of the whites native-born of native father, 20 per cent of the Germans of the second generation, and 12.5 per cent of the Slovak women of the second generation, are engaged in domestic or personal service. The Slovak race of the second generation also shows 6.3 per cent of its women 16 years of age or over in business or trade.
As a matter of fact, however, the small proportion of immigrant women at work for wages can not be considered as indicative of racial tendencies but rather as growing out of the lack of opportunity for work in coal-mining localities. Consequently, the earning possibilities of the female members of the households are limited to the amounts which they can secure from the payments of boarders or lodgers.
GENERAL OCCUPATION OF MALES AT THE PRESENT TIME, IN THE
As regards the occupation of males 16 years of age or over in the households studied in Pennsylvania, the following table shows the per cent in certain general occupations, by general nativity and
Table 174.-General occupation of males 16 years of age or over, by general nativity and
race of individual.
(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The tutals, however, are for all races.]
In the foregoing table 79.7 per cent of the whites native born of native father, 16 years of age or over, are seen to be working in the coal industry, while 13.6 per cent are in other work and 5.1 per cent are at school. The total for the second generation of all races exhibits a smaller percentage working in the mines, and a larger percentage, amounting to 23.7, or almost one-fourth, to be engaged in occupations outside of the coal mines, while about the same proportion as compared with native-born of native father are at school. Of the total foreign-born, practically all are engaged in coal mining, only 2.1 per cent being in other occupations or at home or at school.
Practically all males of foreign birth being engaged in coal mining, the question naturally arises in what occupations within the industry the races of recent and former immigration were at first employed, and in what occupations the different races are at present engaged.
The first Slovaks, Poles, Magyars, and other recent immigrants were employed in the coke industry as yard laborers, car forkers, and coke drawers. This class of work required little or no skill, could be very easily learned, and was most objected to by the Americans, Germans, and English-speaking immigrants on account of the heat, smoke, and unpleasant conditions. Within a short time, as the demand for labor became more and more insistent on account of the rapid expansion of the industry, and the number of Americans, Germans, and English-speaking operatives became relatively smaller
, the recent immigrants were taken into the mines as road men and miners, and with a few years of experience became drivers in the mines, as well as oven levelers and masons in the manufacturing of coke. In the coke yards, in the course of a few years, the races of recent immigration had worked into all of the less skilled occupations and were doing the greater part of the hard, rough, unpleasant, and more dangerous work. At present they fill nearly all the positions of lesser responsibility in both mining and coke making, such as pick miners, machine runners, cutters, loaders, road men, brattice men, pumpers, tipple hands, coke drawers, car forkers, oven levelers, masons, and yard laborers generally. Stated briefly, the recent immigrants are employed in the more disagreeable and dangerous work requiring little skill or responsibility. Such positions as boss driver, yard foreman, fire boss, and others, where the responsibility is greater, are now being filled by an occasional Slovak, Pole, Magyar, or Italian; but the majority of these employees are Americans, Germans, Irish, or Scotch. It is only a question of time, however, until practically all such places will be filled by recent immigrants or their children, for the operatives of other races are steadily leaving the industry. The places of engineers, mine foremen, superintendents, and other positions of larger responsibility, or in which technical training is required, are almost exclusively filled by Americans, Germans, or the English-speaking immigrant races.
The table following shows the racial composition by occupations of the working forces of several typical mines and coke plants in Pennsylvania. From this table it is readily seen that nearly all the higher paid and more responsible positions are held by the natives and older immigrant races, while the recent immigrants are chiefly found as pick miners, loaders, scrapers, inside laborers, and general coke-yard employees. Slovaks, North Italians, Poles, and Magyars occupy more of the higher positions than do members of other recent immigrating races, such as the Croatian and Lithuanian. This is due in part, at least, to the longer residence here of the first-mentioned races. In this connection it should be stated that the South Italian race has been in the region as long as the North Italian, and that the failure of these people to advance into better positions as rapidly as have the North Italians is partly to be ascribed to the fact that they prefer other employment and leave the mining industry when other work is obtainable, and also to the fact that superintendents very generally consider them, as a race, inferior to the Slovaks, Poles, Magyars, and North Italians, and hence usually prefer men of these races for the better places.
The first four tabulations submitted show the racial make-up of four mines in connection with which there are no coke plants; the last six exhibit the racial composition of mines in connection with which coke plants are operated. The employees are divided by races, and the occupations listed are arranged in each division in a descending order of skill and responsibility. Americans are included in the table for purposes of comparison with the foreign-born.
48296° —VOL 6–11—19
Table 175.— Number of employees of each race in the bituminous coal mines and coke
plants, by occupation.