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It will be observed in the foregoing table that 54.8 per cent of the immigrant females were without occupation abroad; 20.3 per cent were working for wages; 23.5 per cent were working without wages; and 1.4 per cent were working for profit. The greatest number of females without occupation are found among the South Italians, with 73.3 per cent. The Magyars come next, with 64.7 per cent, and the North Italians, with 56.3 per cent, the Slovaks, with 56.2 per cent, and Croatians, with 55.1 per cent, follow. The highest proportions working for wages are found among the Slovak, Ruthenian, and Lithuanian females, with about 25 per cent each thus employed. Over one-fifth, or 22.2 per cent, of the North Italian, and 19.9 per cent of the Polish females were regularly employed for wages, and relatively the fewest were working for wages among the Russian and Croatian races. The two races last mentioned, however, have a high percentage in the next group, that is, those working without wages, the Russians showing 52.9 and the Croatians 35.7 per cent. Other races in which a large proportion of the women work without wages are the Ruthenians, Lithuanians, and Poles. The only appreciable numbers working for profit are among the North Italian and Lithuanian females. The table next submitted carries the analysis further and shows in more detail the character of the work done abroad by the females from whom information was secured in this country.

TABLE 169.-Occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born females who

were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The total, however, is for all

foreign-born.)

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The significant feature of the preceding table is found in the fact that, where women of the races of recent immigration were employed abroad at all, with or without wages, the largest proportion from whom information was received were working as farm laborers. The only other occupations engaging any number were various forms of domestic service. In this line of work the Ruthenians and Slovaks show the greatest relative numbers, while the Russian and Lithuanian races lead in the proportion of women employed as farm laborers.

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The following table exhibits the industrial condition of foreign-born male mine workers who were heads or members of households studied in Pennsylvania and who were 16, or more than 16, years of age at the time of coming to the United States, by general nativity and race of individual:

TABLE 170.-Industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born males who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all

foreign-born.]

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This table shows that of the total number of 1,741 males who were 16 years of age or over at the time of arrival in the United States, practically none were without employment abroad. Of this total number, 53.3 per cent were working for wages, 25.4 per cent without Wages, and 20.4 per cent for profit. Of the Germans and North Italians, 65.2 and 64.6 per cent, respectively, were working for wages, and 4.3 and 29.3 per cent, respectively, for profit. Of the Slovaks, Ruthenians, Poles, South Italians, Magyars, and Lithuanians, the per cent working for wages ranges from 58.2 of the first named to 49.5 per cent of the last named; while of these same races working for profit, the per cent is highest among the Lithuanians, who report 31.4 per cent, and lowest among the Slovaks, who report 11.1 per cent. Of the Russian and Croatian immigrants, 55.3 and 37.5 per cent, respectively, were working without wages, while the members of the other races who were working without wages constitute from 30.3 per cent among the Slovaks to 5.5 per cent among the North Italians. A large proportion of males working for profit occurs among the Roumanians and Croatians, 42.4 per cent of the former and 40.5 per cent of the latter being thus reported; also, it will be noted that 31.4 per cent of the Lithuanians, 29.3 per cent of the North Italians, 24.4 per cent of the Ruthenians, 23.7 per cent of the Russians, 21.8 per cent of the South Italians, 20 per cent of the Magyars, 15.5 per cent of the Poles, and 11.1 per cent of the Slovaks were working for profit.

For the purpose of securing a more detailed showing and for ascertaining the kind of work done by the present immigrant mine workers abroad, the three industrial groups exhibited in the preceding table have been analyzed into the principal occupations making up each group. The resultant showing is presented in the following table, which sets forth the occupation before coming to the United States of males who were 16 years of age or over at the time of immigration, by race of individual.

Table 171.-Occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born males who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

(This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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The striking feature of the foregoing tables is seen in the fact that the great majority of the present foreign-born mine workers were farmers or farm laborers abroad; 28.5 per cent were farm laborers working for wages, 24.9 per cent were farm laborers working without wages, and 19.4 per cent were farmers working for profit. Thus 72.8 per cent of the whole group, or nearly three-fourths, were either farmers or farm laborers. With little variation this proportion holds true of each race. By way of illustration, the percentage of farmers and farm laborers among the Slovaks is 73.2 per cent; among the Poles, 69.8 per cent; among the Magyars, 65.3 per cent; among the Russians, 92.2 per cent; among the Lithuanians, 79.9 per cent; among the North Italians, 61.6 per cent; and among the South Italians, 75.3 per cent. These percentages show conclusively that a large majority of the immigrant mine workers were engaged in agricultural pursuits. As regards their training and experience abroad fitting them for their work in this country, the table shows that of the 1,741 males here represented only 63, or 3.6 per cent, were mine employees before coming to the United States. Further examination shows the Magyars and Slovaks with relatively high per cents, practically no members of the other races of recent immigration having been miners abroad. They were peasants, unskilled laborers, or hand tradesmen with no experience which qualified them to enter the coal mines in the United States.

PRINCIPAL OCCUPATION OF IMMIGRANT EMPLOYEES BEFORE COMING

TO THE UNITED STATES.

In addition to the foregoing information, secured from members of the households studied, returns were secured from 17,246 individual mine workers of foreign birth regarding their occupations abroad. These data are presented in summary form in the table which follows, according to general nativity and race. TABLE 172.- Per cent of foreign-born male employees in each specified occupation before

coming to the United States, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 80 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

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In view of the fact that the immigrants are now largely engaged in the mining industry, it is important to note what numbers of each race grouped in the table above were miners abroad. Examination of the table shows two distinct groups of races in respect to experience. The Bohemians and Moravians, English, French, Germans, Irish, and Scotch, show large proportions of their numbers who were mi workers before emigrating. These races show an average of their number to have been 61.3 per cent more or less experienced in mining before entering the industry in this country. In sharp contrast with this situation is the exhibit made by the other races of the table, of which the Croatian, North and South Italian, Lithuanian, Magyar, Polish, Russian and Slovak have less than 10 per cent reporting as having worked in mines abroad. Of these races, only 7.7 per cent were miners before coming to the United States. When this showing is compared with the 61.3 per cent of the preceding group of races, it is an obvious conclusion that there are relatively eight times as many miners among the immigrants from northern Europe and Great Britain as among those from southern and eastern Europe. Further examination of the table indicates that by far the greater part of the immigrants from southern and eastern Europe were farmers and farm laborers in their native lands. Eighty-five per cent of the Croatians, 62 per cent of the North Italians, 63.9 per cent of the South Italians, 79.9 per cent of the Lithuanians, 65.8 per cent of the Magyars, 68.5 per cent of the Poles, 78.8 per cent of the Russians, 68.5 per cent of the Ruthenians, 67.7 per cent of the Slovaks, and 61.4 per cent of the Slovenians, report themselves as farmers or farm laborers abroad. A very small part of any of these races had any industrial experience outside of agriculture before coming to the United States. From the returns obtained from individual miners and from the households studied, it is clear that only a very small percentage of the foreign-born mine employees had any experience in mining abroad, and practically no industrial experience beyond training in crude methods of small farming or in the hand trades of small villages.

GENERAL OCCUPATION OF WOMEN AT THE PRESENT TIME, IN THE

HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The industrial experience and training abroad of the immigrant males and females who are at present employed in the bituminous localities of Pennsylvania having been examined, the point next to be considered is the occupation of the same persons in this country. The following table shows the general occupation, not only of the foreign-born but of all females 16 years of age or over, in the households canvassed in Pennsylvania bituminous regions, by general nativity and race.

TABLE 173.General occupation of females 16 years of age or over, by general nativity and

race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.

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Native-born of native father, White.. Native-born of foreign father, by race of father:

German.

Slovak.
Foreign-born:

Croatian.
German..
Italian, North..
Italian, South.
Lithuanian.
Magyar.
Polish.
Russian..
Ruthenian.
Slovak.

Grand total..
Total native-born of foreign father
Total native-born..
Total foreign-born.

107

25 146 62 79 150 201 38 42 378

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99.1 92.0 97.3 98. 4 98.7 98.7 97.5 100.0 100.0 99. 2

1.6

0 .0 2.0

0 .0 3

1.3
.5
.0
.0
5

.0 .0 2.1

.0 1.3 .0 .0 .0 .0

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104

164 1,290

14. 4
9.8
.7

2.9
4.3
.1

4.8
3.0
.5

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