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more and more labor was first satisfied by the employment of the native Americans themselves, together with the immigration of Swedish, English, Irish, Germans, and a few Welsh. About the year 1893, however, the point had been reached where not enough employees of these races could be secured, and the first Slovaks and Poles were employed. Shortly afterwards several North and South Italians were given work, and in the rapid development beginning about the year 1900 the additional laborers secured were practically all southeastern Europeans. Many more of these later immigrants were also required to take the places of the former operatives who were entering manufacturing plants, not only in the immediate district, but as far west as Pittsburg. At the present time, of a total of 4,500 mine and coke workers in District A, the combined number of American, English, Irish, Scotch, Swedish, and German employees is not over 30 per cent.

Such changes as those shown in the specific cases cited have taken place at all of the older mines and plants of the entire coal and coke region. The newer operations have opened with a labor force composed sometimes of a dozen different races, principally of foreign birth and of recent immigration.

The connection between the expansion of coal mining and coke manufacturing and the arrival of immigrant workers is thus made apparent. In order that the chronology, however, may be made clear in connection with the racial movements to the Connellsville region, it will be worth while, at the risk of repetition, to indicate briefly the periods of arrival and employment of the different races.

Prior to 1860 there had been a steady movement of Germans and Irish to western Pennsylvania and to the particular section where coke making was later developed, the Irish immigration being greater after 1835, and the German after 1848. After 1860 immigration became much more rapid and extensive. In addition to the Irish and German immigrants mentioned above, a few Scotch, English, and Welsh had also been entering before 1860, but never in large numbers. About the year 1870 many English, Scotch, and Irish and some Welsh began settling in the district. In the latter part of the seventies and the early eighties this immigration was relatively large. After the year 1885 it continued, but in decreasing numbers, principally to the northern end of the region up to 1893 or 1894. During the two years 1893 and 1894, arrival of immigrants from Great Britain and Germany ceased almost entirely, due partly to the depression of those years, but also ascribable to other causes which will be mentioned later. A few Swedes came to the northern part of the region about 1880 and continued to 1894, though their numbers were relatively small.

About the vear 1879 the first Slovaks arrived in the Connellsville district. In 1882 they began coming more generally and their number increased very rapidly until checked by the financial depression of 1893 and 1894. About 1896 and 1897, with the revival of industry, the movement began again, and in recent years has assumed very large proportions. More of this race than of any other have come to the region.

a See chapter on Industrial Effects of Immigration, p. 423.

At practically the same time that the Slovak immigration started, the Poles began to enter the United States and pursue much the same course, although only about one-half as many Poles as Slovaks

About 1886 the first appreciable number of Magyars arrived. The immigration of this race also increased rapidly until checked by the panic of 1893. It was renewed with the resumption of active business after the panic and assumed its largest proportions in the succeeding years. In numbers there seem to have been about threefifths as many Magyars as Poles. Some Bohemian immigration, chiefly to the northern part of the region, also began about the time the Slovaks and Poles first made their presence felt, but did not assume much numerical importance, and practically stopped during 1893 and 1894. Both North and South Italians were in the district as early as 1879, but their immigration seems to have been not large until after 1888. Since the latter date they have come in rapidly and, together, probably number as many as do the Poles. The Croatians began arriving in appreciable numbers about 1893. Their immigration was not large, however, until after 1896 or 1897. Since the latter year, they have entered the region rapidly and to-day number as many as the Poles. Several other races have also settled in the region, but as yet their numbers are relatively small. A few Ruthenians arrived in 1892 and 1893, and a few Servians, Bulgarians, and Roumanians since 1900. The immigration of all these later races is still in progress. The Slovaks, Poles, Magyars, Croatians, and North and South Italians are arriving in large numbers, and although scattered individuals of the other races are also finding employment at the mines and coke ovens the heaviest immigration at present is by the races above mentioned.

PERIOD OF RESIDENCE IN THE UNITED STATES OF FOREIGN-BORN

EMPLOYEES AND MEMBERS OF THEIR HOUSEHOLDS.

Figures showing the period during which foreign-born mine workers have lived in the United States throw valuable light upon the time when each race was employed in the bituminous mines of Pennsylvania, and to this extent substantiate the statements about the history of immigration. It is generally true that the period of employment of a foreign-born employee coincides with his period of residence in the United States, for the reason that the greater number of immigrants come directly from the port of landing to the bituminous mining districts. On the other hand, a considerable number are employed in other industries or in other coal fields, before entering the Pennsylvania mines, and this fact prevents any hard and fást statement that the period of residence in this country is the same as the period of employment in the Pennsylvania mining regions. Period of residence in the United States is, however, indicative of period of employment for the races of less recent immigration, and for races of more recent immigration practically a positive criterion. With these reservations in mind, the following tables, showing, by general nativity and race, the period of residence in this country of the foreign-born bituminous mining employees of Pennsylvania, will be found very interesting and instructive. The first table, which immediately follows, gives figures for 37,016 mine employees covered by the study of individual mine workers.

48296° --VOL 6–11

-18

Table 165.—Per cent of foreign-born male employees in the United States each specified

number of years, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is

made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

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It is noticeable in the foregoing table that the immigration of the past ten years has been far in excess of all prior immigration, and also that the immigration of the periods prior to the past ten years was mainly of English, Irish, Scotch, and other English-speaking peoples, while that of the last decade has been mainly from the races of southern and eastern European countries. The total number of individuals from whom information was secured was 37,016. Of this number, 40.3 per cent, or 14,914 individuals, have been in the United States under five years, while 29 per cent, or 10,748 individuals, have been in the United States from five to nine years. Thus it can be seen that considerably more than one-half, or, to be accurate, 69.3 per cent, of all the foreign-born males reporting information have been in the United States under ten years.

From the twenty-year period down to, and including, the ten-year period, the number reporting is perceptibly smaller. Of the total number, only 8.3 per cent, or 3,084 individuals, have been in the United States from ten to fourteen years; 8.9 per cent, or 3,283 individuals, have been in the United States from fifteen to nineteen years; and 13.5 per cent, or 4,987 individuals, have been in the United States twenty years or more. As already stated, the most important and most interesting fact disclosed by the table under consideration is! that the incoming of English-speaking immigrants has decreased! during the past decade, while immigration from among the southern and eastern European races has rapidly increased during the same period. Taking on the one hand the English, Irish, Scotch, Scotch

Irish, and Germans, and on the other the Croatians, North and South Italians, Lithuanians, Magyars, Poles, Russians, Slovaks, and Slovenians, such a statement is found to be amply supported. Of a total of 1,285 English, 887, or 69 per cent, have been in the United States twenty years or more, while only 12.5 per cent have resided in the United States less than five years, 7 per cent have resided here from five to nine years, 4.2 per cent from ten to fourteen years,

and 7.2 per cent from fifteen to nineteen years. The same situation is brought out even more forcibly in the case of the Irish. Out of a total of 656 individuals, 547, or 83.4 per cent, have resided in the United States twenty years or more, while the other periods are represented as follows: Residence of less than five years, 4.4 per cent; five to nine years, 2.4 per cent; ten to fourteen years, 2.7 per cent; fifteen to nineteen years, 7 per cent. Similarly the Scotch show that of a total of 555 individuals 66.1 per cent have resided in the United States twenty years or more, 6.3 per cent have resided here from fifteen to nineteen years, 2.7 per cent from ten to fourteen years, 10.1 per cent from five to nine years, and 14.8 per cent under five years. The Scotch-Irish, of whom only a small number of individuals are reported, follow, in period of residence, very much the same course as do the Irish and Scotch. Of a total of 191 Welsh individuals reported, 73.3 per cent have been in the United States twenty years or more, 7.3 per cent fifteen to nineteen years, 6.3 per cent ten to fourteen years, 3.1 per cent five to nine years, and 9.9 per cent under five years. The study of German individuals is sufficiently large to show clearly the course of northern European immigration into western Pennsylvania in contrast with that from southern and eastern Europe. Of a total of 1,528 Germans, 697, or 45.6 per cent, have been in the United States twenty years or more, 23.2 per cent fifteen to nineteen years, 5.4 per cent ten to fourteen years, 13.7 per cent five to nine years, and 12 per cent under five years.

The course of immigration from southern and eastern Europe, it will be seen, has, on the other hand, constantly increased during the past twenty years. Out of a total of 9,962 Slovak individuals, 3,766, or 37.8 per cent, have resided in the United States under five years; 31.8 per cent, from five to nine years; 11.3 per cent, from ten to fourteen years; 9.6 per cent, from fifteen to nineteen years; and 9.6 per cent, for twenty years or more. The recent arrival of Croatians is even more marked than that of the Slovaks. Of a total of 1,963 Croatian individuals, 1,112, or 56.6 per cent, have been in the United States under five years; 34.3 per cent, from five to nine years; 4.5 per cent, from ten to fourteen years; 3.4 per cent, from fifteen to nineteen years; and 1.1 per cent, twenty years or more. Thus it will be seen that 90.9 per cent of all Croatian individuals reporting have resided in the United States under ten years. The course of Magyar immigration runs almost parallel with that of the Croatians.Out of a total of 3,520 Magyar individuals, 52.7 per cent have been in this country under five years; 30.7 per cent, from five to nine years; 7.3 per cent, from ten to fourteen years; 6.3 per cent, from fifteen to nineteen years; and 3.1 per cent, twenty years or more. In other words, 83.4 per cent of all Magyar individuals reporting have been in the United States under ten

years and only 16.6 per cent over ten years. Of a total of 1,279 Russian individuals, 56.6 per cent have resided in the United States under five years; 25.4 per cent, from five to nine years; 8 per cent, from ten to fourteen years; 6 per cent, from fifteen to nineteen years; and 4 per cent, for twenty years or more. The courses of North Italian and of South Italian immigration run almost identical. Of a total of 3,365 North Italians, 47.7 per cent have been in the United States under five years, as compared with 2,224 South Italians, of whom 47 per cent have been here under five years; 33.5 per cent of the North Italians have been here from five to nine years, as compared with 34.5 per cent of the South Italians for a like period; 8.6 per cent of the North Italians have been here from ten to fourteen years, while 8.4 per cent of the South Italians have been here for the same period; 7.1 per cent of the North Italians have been here from fifteen to nineteen years, as compared with 6.4 per cent of the South Italians, and, finally, 3.1 per cent of the North Italians have been in the United States twenty years or more, as compared with 3.7 per cent of the South Italians for a like period.

Of a total of 5,990 Polish individuals, 44.4 per cent have resided here under five years; 31 per cent, from five to nine years; 8.8 per cent, from ten to fourteen years; 9.1 per cent, from fifteen to nineteen years; and 6.7 per cent, for twenty years or more.

The Lithuanians appear in smaller numbers, only 637 of this race reporting. Of that number, however, 32 per cent have been in the United States under five years; 36.9 per cent, from five to nine years; 11.9 per cent, from ten to fourteen years; 13.5 per cent, from fifteen to nineteen years; and 5.7 per cent, for twenty years or more.

The only conclusion to be drawn from the foregoing exhibit is that, in the case of western Pennsylvania, during the past ten years immigration from southern and eastern Europe has supplanted that from northern Europe.

The general table gives the number of each race that have resided in the United States for each year during the past five years. The number residing in the United States less than one year is remarkably large. The predominating races of recent immigration are well represented, and the individuals are, doubtless, persons who have had relatives and friends already employed in the mines and who have gone into the Pennsylvania bituminous localities to join them immediately upon arriving in the United States.

The proportion of all foreign-born persons in the households studied who have been in the United States each specified number of years, according to race of individual, is set forth in the table on the page following.

a See General Table 54, Vol. II, p. 366.

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