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PART II-THE BITUMINOUS COAL MINING INDUSTRY IN PENNSYLVANIA.

GENERAL SURVEY.

CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTION.

Households studied-Members of households for whom detailed information was secured-Employees for whom information was secured-[Text Tables 153 to 157 and General Tables 51 to 53].

As regards the scope of the study in Pennsylvania, the table submitted below shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the total number and relative proportion of households of the several races investigated. These households were selected from the different districts of the Pennsylvania bituminous regions in order to show differences in living and working conditions. The table follows:

TABLE 153.-Households studied, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

General nativity and race of head of household.

HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

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Households.

Number.

33

16

111

16

30

10

144

64

81

152

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Of the 1,340 households studied, it will be seen that the largest proportion, or 97.5 per cent, are foreign, as compared with 2.5 per cent which are native. Of the several races, the Slovak shows the largest proportion, or 28.7 per cent, followed by the Polish, Magyar, North Italian, and Croatian, with proportions ranging from 14.8 per cent for the Polish to 8.3 per cent for the Croatian. The smallest

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proportions, on the other hand, are shown for the Irish and Roumanian races, each reporting 0.7 per cent.

The native whites with 2.5 per cent, it will be noted, show a slightly larger percentage than the Germans and a much larger proportion than the English, each, however, reporting a very small proportion of the total.

MEMBERS OF HOUSEHOLDS FOR WHOM DETAILED INFORMATION WAS

SECURED.

The following table shows the persons in households studied, and persons for whom detailed information was secured, by general nativity and race of head of household: TABLE 154.- Persons in households studied and persons for whom detailed information

ecured, by general nativity and race of head of household.

was secu

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From the above table it will be seen that, of the grand total of 8,871 persons, 97.9 per cent are in foreign households, as compared with 2.1 per cent in native households. The Slovaks show the largest proportion, or 27.1 per cent, followed by the Poles and North Italians, with 15.3 and 11.2 per cent, respectively, while the proportions of the other races range from 10.6 per cent as shown by the Magyars to 0.6 per cent as shown by the Roumanians.

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In the households studied detailed information was received for a total of 6,813 persons, of whom 3,747 are males and 3,066 females. The number and percentage of males and females in these households are found in the following table:

Table 155.-Ser of persons for whom detailed information was secured, by general nativity

and race of head of household.

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The table above includes 182 persons in native households and 6,631 persons in immigrant households, or a total of 6,813 individuals, of which number 3,747, or 55 per cent, are males and 3,066, or 45 per cent, females. In the households visited were some 2,000 additional persons, chiefly boarders and lodgers, for whom detailed information was not secured, but who are accounted for in the series of tables giving numbers of persons in households, by race and general nativity. Were these persons, most of whom are males, included in the foregoing table the percentage of males within the households would be considerably higher.

The table next presented shows the persons in the households studied for whom detailed information was secured, by sex and general nativity and race of individual, and not by sex and general nativity and race of head of household, as in the previous table.

Table 156.—Persons for whom detailed information was secured, by sex and general

nativity and race of individual.

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Native-born of native father, White..
Native-born of foreign father, by race of
father:

Bohemian and Moravian
Croatian.
English.
German.
Irish.
Italian, North
Italian, South.
Lithuanian.
Magyar.
Polish,
Roumanian
Russian..
Ruthenian
Scotch.
Slovak

Slovenian.
Foreign-born:

Bohemian and Moravian.
Bosnian...
Croatian..
English.
French.
German.
Irish.
Italian, North.
Italian, South.
Lithuanian.
Magyar.
Polish...
Roumanian
Russian..
Ruthenian
Scotch.
Slovak
Slovenian.
Welsh..

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From the above table it may be seen that of a total of 6,813 persons for whom detailed information was secured, 58.5 per cent of the males are foreign-born and 41.5 per cent are native-born, while 50.5 per cent of the females are native-born and 49.5 per cent foreign-born. Of the various races, the Slovaks, both native-born of foreign father and foreign-born, stand out prominently, the proportion of the former being 12.2 per cent and of the latter 16.5 per cent, as shown for the males, and 15.5 per cent and 14.4 per cent, respectively, as shown for the females.

EMPLOYEES FOR WHOM INFORMATION WAS SECURED.

In addition to the households and members of households studied, detailed information was secured for 49,137 male workers in the bituminous mines of Pennsylvania. The number of individuals studied is shown, by general nativity and race, in the following table:

TABLE 157.-Male employees for whom information was secured, by general nativity and

race.

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a Less than 0.05 per cent.

The racial composition of the operating forces of the mines may be more readily grasped from the accompanying chart, which shows in graphic form the data presented in the above table.

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