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The data secured by the Immigration Commission are presented in the following table:
TABLE 138.-Classification of employees by general nativity and race and by groups.
In this table all localities are combined. It will be seen that 50.4 per cent, slightly over one-half, of all the individuals are included in Group II.
The following table gives the figures for Pennsylvania in 1907: TABLE 139.-Classification of Pennsylvania employees by nationality or race and by
Compiled from annual report of Secretary of Internal Affairs of Pennsylvania for 1907, Part III,
Industrial Statistics, pp. 95 and 96.)
4.6 2.8 1.8 1.5 .9
17.8 14.8 8.0 7.9 2.0 1.7 1.5 .3 3
For explanation of grouping, see p. 224.
• Less than 0.05 per cent.
In this table 72,319 employees are classified according to nationality or race. The men of the races included in Group II constitute 54.6 per cent of this total.
A comparison of the figures of the above table with the original data for the same territory, secured in 1909, is of interest. The original data appear in the following table:
Table 140.-Classification of Pennsylvania employees by general nativity and race
and by groups.
Of the 49,137 individuals classified according to general nativity and race, 64.3 per cent are natives of southern and eastern Europe. In this table the proportion of recent immigrants reported is higher than in the table compiled from the figures given in the state report. The difference in the percentages may be due in part to the difference in dates, the figures for one table having been secured, as has been noted, in 1907, and those for the other in 1909. In comparing the percentages of the several tables, the fact should not be overlooked that the number of men employed in mining is much larger in Pennsylvania than in any other State or locality in the country. The exceptionally high percentage of eastern and southern Europeans employed in the mines of the State is therefore significant.
Conditions in Illinois in the year 1899 are shown by the next table presented.
a Production of Coal in 1908, Edward W. Parker. U. S. Geological Survey, Mineral Resources of the United States. Table on page 39.
TABLE 141.—Classification of Illinois employees by nationality or race and by groups. O
(Compiled from Illinois Coal Report, 1899, pp. LXXII and LXXV.]
& For explanation of grouping, see p. 224.
The Austrians and Bohemians are classified together in the state report. The majority of persons of Austrian nativity employed in the mining industry are probably of the recent immigration. Upon the other hand, a large percentage of the Bohemians have been in the United States for a considerable period of time. (See Table 144, p. 229.) It being impossible to separate the figures, “Austrian and Bohemian" have been included in this table, arbitrarily, in Group I.
In this table only 17.8 per cent of the 36,130 individuals classified according to nationality or race were natives of southern or eastern Europe. It is over ten years since the data for the table were secured and there has been, in the interval, a change in the racial composition of the working force of the mines of the Middle West. The prevailing tendency in Illinois, as well as in the neighboring States, is probably fairly indicated by the original data for the Middle West,
presented in the following table: : TABLE 142.-Classification of employees in the Middle West by general nativity and race
and by groups.
a For explanation of grouping, see p. 224.
o Less than 0.05 per cent.
It will be seen that of the 18,737 individuals included in the table, 6,417, or 34.2 per cent, are of the races of recent immigration. The data for this table were secured in 1909.
The following table gives the figures for West Virginia: Table 143.-Classification of West Virginia employees by nationality of race and by
groups.a (Compiled from annual report of the Department of Mines of West Virginia for the year ending June
30, 1908, p. 92.)
Data are presented for 51,777 individuals. Of these, 14,980, or 28.9 per cent, are of the races of recent immigration.
From all the data secured it is clear that the men of recent immigration employed in the bituminous coal mines of the United States greatly outnumber the men of old immigration so employed. It further appears that in one locality at least the recent immigrants outnumber the old immigrants and the native-born combined.
LACK OF EXPERIENCE ON THE PART OF RECENT IMMIGRANTS.
In considering the characteristics of the mine workers, as a cause of accidents, a clear distinction must be made between the races of the old and those of the recent immigration.
The length of residence in the United States of foreign-born employees of the different races is shown by the following table:
TABLE 144.—Per cent of foreign-born male employees who have been in the United States each specified number of years, by race.
(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)
[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]
Austrian (race not specified).
Belgian (race not specified)..
103 2,444 70
Per cent in United States each specified number of years.
3.6 1.2 34.7
This table is compiled from original data and includes all the foreign-born employees of the industry for whom this information was secured. The classification is by years in the United States and by race. It will be noted that the English, Irish, Scotch, Welsh, Germans, Swedes, and other natives of northern and western Europe, have in general been in this country much longer than have the men of the races of southern and eastern Europe. In the columns showing the percentage of individuals who have been in this country three years or less the distinction between the old immigrants and the recent immigrants is particularly obvious. A very considerable proportion of the latter have been in the United States less than four
The experience which the men of the different races had in mining before coming to the United States is indicated by the tables and chart next presented.
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