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Table 134.-- Race of male employees for whom information was secured, by locality;
per cent distribution-Continued.
Foreign-born, by race Con.
fied). Belgian (race not speci
7 105 1,283
86 9,999 1,560
1 24 796 99
.1 1.9 (a)
.1 4. 2 .5 .0
3. 2 (a)
21 391 57 1 5
1 133 196
5 19 3
The proportion of foreign-born individuals is largest in Pennsylvania and smallest in the South. The figure for Pennsylvania is 75.7 per cent; that for the South is but 29.1 per cent. In the Southwest the proportion of foreign-born is slightly higher than in the Middle West. Further data as to the nativity of the employees of the coal-mining industry are supplied by the official reports of the mining departments of the three States leading in the production of coal, Pennsylvania, Illinois, and West Virginia.
Number of foreign-born employees and total number of employees for whom detailed information was secured, by locality.
The figures of the following table are from the report of the Pennsylvania department of mines for the year 1907:
TABLE 135.-Nationality or race of employees in the bituminous mines of Pennsylvania, 1907. [From annual report of Secretary of Internal Affairs of Pennsylvania for 1907, Part III, Industrial Statistics, pp. 95 and 96.]
a Less than 0.05 per cent.
NOTE.-Total number of companies, 512; number of companies reporting on labor blank, 475; number of companies not reporting on labor blank, 37. Number of employees included in this table, 79,260; total number of employees in the bituminous mines of Pennsylvania in 1907, 183,121. (Annual report of Pennsylvania department of mines, 1907, Part II, Bituminous, p. L.) Two hundred and seven "Granolis" and 2 Scandinavians included in "mixed"; 4 "Magyars' combined with "Hungarians"; and 78 "Howats" (presumably Hervats) combined with "Croatians."
The data for Pennsylvania cover 79,260 out of a total of 183,121 employees. It will be noted that a large number are classified as "mixed." Sixty-three and three-tenths per cent of all the employees classified according to general nativity and race are of foreign birth.
A comparison of the percentages of this table with those given for the Pennsylvania district in the table on page 249 is of interest. The locality is the same in either case. A larger proportion of all employees are included in the table compiled from the figures of the state report than in that compiled from original data. Upon the other hand, there are in the last-mentioned table no employees classified as mixed, and the classification by race is probably more reliable. The proportion of foreign-born reported in the original table is 75.7 per cent, as against the 63.3 per cent of the table compiled from the figures of the state report.
In 1899 the State of Illinois collected data for the classification, according to general nativity and race, of nearly all the employees in the coal mines of the State. The results are shown in the following table:
TABLE 136.— Nationality of employees of Illinois mines, 1899.
General nativity and race are given for 36,130 out of a total of 36,991 employees. Fifty-six and eighty-eight hundredths per cent of all those classified according to general nativity and race are foreign-born.
The following figures are for West Virginia: TABLE 137.— Nationality of employees in the bituminous coal mines of West Virginia,
June 30, 1908. (Compiled from annual report of the Department of Mines of West Virginia for the year ending June 30,
1908, p. 92.)
Information as to nativity and race is given for 51,777 out of a total of 60,484 employees. Thirty-one and nine-tenths per cent of the employees classified according to race and nativity, or 27.3 per cent of all the employees, are of foreign birth. The figures of the table are for the year 1908.
Upon the authority of the data presented it seems safe to make the assertion that a very large proportion, at least one-half, of all the employees in the bituminous coal-mining industry of the United States are of foreign birth.
RECENT AND OLD IMMIGRATION COMPARED.
The foreign-born workmen may be further classified, by race, as the old immigrants and the recent immigrants. The meaning of the distinction has been explained elsewhere in this report.
The fact that many of the mine employees are men of the races of recent immigration is shown by the preceding tables. In order to make the comparison more graphic, the figures of these tables have been rearranged in racial groups. In the six tables next presented Group I in every case_comprises the native-born and the races of northern and western Europe and of Great Britain, and Group II comprises the races of southern and eastern Europe. In arranging these groups, those entered in the state reports as “mixed "unknown" have been omitted.
a Page 21 et seq.
b The different races and nationalities have been divided into two general groups. In the first of these are included the Americans, together with the immigrants from northern and western Europe—the less recent immigrants. The second group is made up of the natives of southern and eastern Europe. These are the recent immigrants.
This division into groups is made for two reasons. In the first place, the object of the tables being to contrast in a general way the number of old immigrants with the number of recent immigrants, it is believed that the grouping enables this to be done much more clearly than had the races and nationalities been left uncombined. In the second place, grave doubts are entertained, in the case of the three tables compiled from figures in state mine reports, as to the accuracy of the classification according to nationality and race. Information seems to have been set down as received from operators or workmen without any attempt at editing or combination. In some of the reports consulted the words "Hervat” and “Croatian,” “Hungarian " and “Magyar” frequently appear in the same table. The list of nationalities has also been found to differ materially from year to year. The mine inspectors of the States have little reason be, and are not, trained ethnologists, and clearly mistakes have been made. It is believed that by the grouping these mistakes have been rendered of less importance. That a Pole should be reported as Austrian, a Ruthenian as a Russian, or a Slovak as a Hungarian would appear quite possible; but there is little likelihood that any of these or an Italian would be reported as an Englishman or a Scandinavian. By dividing the nationalities into the older immigrants and the more recent immigrants, it is possible to be reasonably certain that all the men are included at least in the general group in which they properly belong.