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TABLE 119.- Present political condition of foreign-born male employees who have been in
the United States each specified number of years and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming, by locality and by race.
(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting in each of two or more localities. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)
IN UNITED STATES 5 TO 9 YEARS. Per cent fully naturalized in each speci- Per cent having first papers only in each fied locality
a Not computed, owing to small number involved.
Of all bituminous coal-mine employees of foreign birth who have been in the United States from five to nine years, 5.8 per cent, as can readily be seen in Table 119, are fully naturalized and 15.7 per cent have first papers. It is, therefore, evident that 78.5 per cent have taken no steps toward naturalization. Upon comparing the four localities, however, 68.1 per cent of the foreign-born employees in the Southwest are found to have either first or second papers; the Middle West follows, with 39.6 per cent; and Pennsylvania and the South rank third and fourth, with 12.3 per cent and 10.8 per cent, respectively.
In the Middle West the Lithuanians lead in the per cent of fully naturalized persons. The Germans, North Italians, Russians, Irish, and Slovaks follow, in the order named. In Pennsylvania only 3 per cent of all reporting have second papers. Of the Irish 23.1 per cent, and of the Welsh 25 per cent have become citizens, while less than 2 per cent of the Croatians, Magyars, Poles, Russians, and Slovaks are fully naturalized. In the South only 2.7 per cent of those reporting are naturalized, the North Italians showing the highest per cent. In the Southwest the races with the greatest number fully naturalized are the French, German, Lithuanian, Slovak, and South Italian, in the order named. The English and the Scotch have none naturalized among those reporting.
Upon comparing the per cents of several races in the four mining areas having first papers only, the Bohemians and Moravians in the Middle West display the greatest political interest, 60.3 per cent having taken the first step toward naturalization. The English, German, and Scotch follow in the order named. The Croatians, with 7.1 per cent, and the Russians, with 7.4 per cent, show the least proportions holding first papers. In Pennsylvania, also, the Bohemians and Moravians have the highest per cent with first papers. Only 2.4 per cent of the Croatians in Pennsylvania have taken out their first papers, while the Lithuanians, Magyars, Poles, Russians, and Slovaks are each below the general showing for all the races in the locality. In the South 8.1 per cent of those reporting have first papers, as compared with 56.7 per cent in the Southwest. The English exhibit 57.1 per cent with first papers. All the other races have below 9 per cent. In the Southwest, where the tendency toward acquiring full citizenship is quite marked, the Slovenians, with but few persons reporting, show that 80 per cent of their number have first papers. The Lithuanians, Poles, and Russians are the only races with less than 45 per cent who have first papers.
Proceeding further in the consideration of residence in its relation to citizenship, the second section of the table shows the present political condition of foreign-born males 21 years of age or over at the time of coming to the United States, who have been in the United States ten years or over, by locality and by race.
This tabulation shows that 51.1 per cent of the foreign-born males with a residence of ten years or over are fully naturalized, and that 13.8 per cent have first papers, or, in other words, that only 35.1 per cent have made no attempt to secure either first or second papers, as compared with 78.5 per cent for those who have been here five to nine years.
The Middle West leads the other localities in political or civic interest. In that section 71.1 per cent of those reporting information are fully naturalized, while in the Southwest the per cent fully naturalized is 52.8, in Pennsylvania it is 44.8, and in the South' 42.3. Comparing the different races in the Middle West, the Germans lead with 92.9 per cent having second papers, closely followed by 92.3 per cent of the Bohemians and Moravians. The Poles, the Croatians, and the Magyars are the lowest, in the order named. In Pennsylvania, upon comparing the races, the Irish are found leading in the number fully naturalized, followed by the Welsh, the English, the Scotch, and the Germans, in the order named. The lowest showing is made by the Croatians, with 15.9 per cent; then come the Russians with 18.1 per cent, the Magyars with 20.4 per cent, and the Slovaks with 21.6 per cent. The North Italians have 42.3 per cent and the South Italians 42.6 per cent fully naturalized. In the South, the English show 80.6 per cent with second papers.
All the other races are below 35 per cent, the highest being the North Italian with 32 per cent, and the lowest the Magyar, with 13.3 per cent. In the Southwest the Germans have 78.9 per cent fully naturalized. The English, Slovaks, Slovenians, and Scotch follow in the order named. None of the Russians reporting have either first or second papers. Only 19.4 per cent of the Poles are fully naturalized.
As regards the relative standing of the races reported for the whole industry, the table shows that the Welsh, Irish, Germans, and English lead in taking out full naturalization papers. The Croatians and the Magyars, in the order named, have the smallest per cent fully naturalized. Of the total of 18,363 bituminous coalmine employees of foreign birth 26.8 per cent are fully naturalized.
Upon comparing the four localities, it is seen that the Middle West leads, 44 per cent of the miners having taken out full papers. The Southwest shows 31.1 per cent citizens, Pennsylvania 22.1 per cent, and the South 17.4 per cent.
In the Middle West the Welsh have 84.5 per cent fully naturalized males. The Germans show the next highest per cent. Of the races of southern and eastern Europe the Slovaks lead, with 46 per cent, and the Lithuanians come next, with 44.5 per cent. Most of the races bave a higher per cent of naturalization in this region than in the other localities.
In Pennsylvania the Irish have 85.1 per cent fully naturalized. The Welsh, English, Scotch, and Germans follow in the order named. The races showing very little interest in acquiring citizenship are the Croatians, Russians, and Magyars. For this locality the North Italians, with 19.1 per cent, and the South Italians, with 19.4 per cent of their numbers fully naturalized, exhibit practically the same tendencies. The Lithuanians of Pennsylvania do not display the same political interest as members of the same race in the Middle West or the Southwest.
In the South the Irish and English show 81 and 55.6 per cent of their numbers, respectively, who are naturalized. They are the only races from northern Europe which have reported in sufficient numbers tu be considered. The Croatians show no desire for naturalizaation, and the Magyars and Poles exhibit only slight tendencies in this direction.
In the Southwest almost twice as large a proportion of the miners are naturalized as in the South. Here the Germans lead in the percentage of citizenship, with the English following. The Scotch, however, are only slightly above the Slovaks, and the French are below the Lithuanians and Slovaks. The Poles are lowest, with 11.4 per cent of their number fully naturalized. On comparing the proportion of those having first papers only it is seen that 45 per cent of all the employees reporting in the Southwest have first papers. Considering the relative activity of the employees in this region in securing second papers, and taking it in connection with the very high per cent having first papers, the returns show that the Southwest leads all localities in the desire for citizenship.
The Middle West shows a high percentage of immigrants who have been in the United States for a long time and who have secured their second papers. Consequently there is a correspondingly small proportion having first papers. The Bohemians in the Middle West show 42.9 per cent who have taken out first papers, while the Lithuanians in the same section have only 9.8 per cent.
Upon the basis of a comparison of those having first and those having second papers, Pennsylvania ranks but little above the South. The Bohemians and Moravians lead the other races in first papers. All except 9.8 per cent of the Irish reported in Pennsylvania, and all but 17.9 per cent of the English, have either first or second papers. Ninety-two and nine-tenths per cent of the Croatians, 84.2 per cent of the Russians, 83.2 per cent of the Magyars, 82.2 per cent of the Slovaks, 77.3 per cent of the Poles, and 78.3 per cent of the Lithuanians in the Pennsylvania mines have not secured first papers, or, in other words, have made no effort toward becoming citizens.
The table next presented makes the comparison of the political condition of the members of the households studied, according to the geographical divisions of the industry. Percentages are computed for those races only which have 20 or more males reporting in each of two or more localities. The percentages for the total bituminous industry are the same as for Table 118 relating to households, and are reprinted in the following table for comparative purposes. TABLE 120.- Present political condition of foreign-born males who have been in the
United States 5 years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming, by locality and by race of individual.
(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting in each of two or more localities. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]
Per cent fully naturalized in each speci. Per cent having first papers only in each fied locality.
• This total includes persons in households not given in the localities, because within a locality no race pas tabulated unless 10 or more shcedules were secured.
Not computed, owing to small number involved.
In this table the Middle West is far in the lead of other sections, with 41 per cent of its bituminous coal miners fully naturalized and 21.7 per cent holding first papers. However, no conclusions may be drawn from the relatively small number of households reporting, the study of employees being of more value in this comparison. The Southwest follows, with 23.4 and 24.2 per cent, respectively; Pennsylvania stands third, with 20.6 per cent and 12.7 per cent; and the South fourth, only 9.5 per cent of foreign-born males in this locality being American citizens and only 6.3 per cent holding first papers.
As only the principal races are here tabulated, the races under comparison are few. In the Middle West, the North Italians and the Lithuanians only are reported in sufficient numbers for computation. Of these, the Italians appear to slightly better advantage, with 44.8 per cent fully naturalized and 37.9 per cent holding first papers, while the Lithuanians, although reporting 42.9 per cent fully naturalized, show but 17.9 per cent with first papers.
In the Southwest the Slovaks lead, with 20.7 per cent naturalized and 34.5 per cent holding first papers. The North Italians follow, with 17.1 per cent naturalized and 25.6 per cent having first papers; and the Lithuanians are third, their percentages being 14.8 and 33.3, respectively.
In the households of Pennsylvania the Italians are far ahead of the other races as regards citizenship. The South Italians lead, with 34 per cent naturalized and 12 per cent holding first papers, while the North Italians show 31.6 per cent naturalized and 18.9 per cent with first papers. The Magyars rank third, with 20.3 per cent of their number naturalized and 14.5 per cent holding first papers; and the Slovaks fourth, their percentages being 17.2 and 11.1, respectively. The Lithuanians show only 10.2 per cent of their number who have acquired full citizenship.
Only four races with sufficient numbers for the computation of percentages are reported in this table for the South, and the proportion of American citizens is very small. The Slovaks lead, with 12.5 per cent fully naturalized and 8.3 per cent holding first papers. The Magyars, with 11.8 per cent and 2.9 per cent, respectively, are not far behind as regards complete naturalization, but show a much larger proportion of aliens. The Poles rank third, and the South Italians, the race appearing to best advantage in Pennsylvania, come last, their proportion of fully naturalized men being but 3.8 per cent, while of those holding first papers it is only 1.9 per cent.
ABILITY TO SPEAK ENGLISH.
To acquire a knowledge of the English language is the first and most important step toward Americanization, besides being absolutely preliminary to any form of progress. A study of the series of tables next presented will give a clear idea of the tendencies manifested by the coal-mining employees along these lines.
The tăble first presented shows the per cent of persons 6 years of age and over in the households studied who are able to speak English, by sex and by general nativity and race of individual.