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Much more marked variations among localities are found for the races of foreign birth. The Croatian race shows 2.8 per cent of its families in Pennsylvania and 61.9 per cent in the Southwest owning homes; the North Italian reports 70.6 per cent in the Middle West, 10.4 per cent in Pennsylvania, and 51.1 per cent in the Southwest. No representatives of races employed in the South give evidence of any pronounced tendency to acquire homes, owing principally to the lack of opportunity under the conditions of employment prevailing in that section.
STATUS OF CHILDREN IN THE HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.
In a study of the industrial condition of foreign-born mine workers in this country the status of their children is of value. The table following shows the per cent of children of both sexes in the households studied, 6 and under 16 years of age, at home, at school, and at work, by general nativity and race of individual.
Table 114.—Per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at school, and at
work, by sex and general nativity and race of individual.
(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only races with 40 or more children reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]
The grand totals in the table above show only 3.1 per cent of the children at work, while 19.1 per cent are at home and 77.9 per cent at school. That a greater proportion of foreign-born than of nativeborn children are at home is also indicated.
Of the native-born children whose fathers were of native birth, 3.4 per cent, as compared with 3 per cent of the second generation and 3 per cent of the foreign-born, are at work. The highest percentage of children at work is shown by the foreign-born North Italians, 3.9 per cent of whose children are employed. Other races with a greater than average proportion are the foreign-born South Italians with 3.8 per cent, and the second generation of the same people with 3.6 per cent, the second generation of Slovaks with 3.7 per cent, and of Vagyars with 3.1 per cent. The proportion of children at work is greater in the second generation of the Magyars, Poles, and Slovaks than in the first. The only girls at work are one native white, and two Poles and five Slovaks of the second generation. The South Italians show the highest percentage of boys at work, the numbers being 7 per cent and 7.1 per cent for the first and second generations, respectively. The foreign-born North Italians rank next, with 6.8 per cent, followed by the Germans of the second generation with 6.1 per cent. The native whites show 5.7 per cent, the second generation Magyars 5.6 per cent, and the Irish 5.4 per cent.
The percentage for the total number of children at school is reduced by the low rating for the foreign-born, only 70.8 per cent of whose children are so reported. The whites native-born of native father report 87.7 per cent, as compared with the general average of 77.9 per cent. The highest percentage is that of the second generation Irish, whose 94.8 per cent exceeds even the 92.4 per cent of the second generation German. The second generation North Italians, with 87.8 per cent, rank third, the other races with a greater than average proportion being the Magyars and Slovaks of the second generation, with 80.9 per cent and 78.4 per cent, respectively. All of the foreignborn show percentages less than that for the grand total.
The second generation Irish and Germans rank first and second in the comparison relating to girls at school. The whites native-born of native father follow. The Irish boys of the second generation are more generally in school than are those of other races, the Germans of the second generation again ranking second, with the North Italians of the second generation third, and the native whites fourth. The Poles and Slovaks of the second generation rank higher than the average in this comparison, though falling below it in the education of their daughters, each of these races showing a much greater proportion of girls than of boys at home.
The percentage of foreign-born children at home is very much greater than those of the other groups. The Poles have the highest percentage, with 35.5 per cent of their children at home, followed by the Magyars and South Italians, each with 30 per cent. The Lithuanians, not tabulated among the foreign-born on account of small numbers, show 26.6 per cent of the children of the second generation at home. The Lithuanians and South Italians of the second generation have a greater proportion of boys than of girls at home, the percentage of boys in school being extremely low.
The table next presented shows by race of father the relative numbers of children of native and foreign birth at work, at school, and at home. It includes children between the ages of 6 and 16 years, and exhibits only those races reporting 20 or more children born abroad and also 20 or more born in the United States. The exhibit is
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arranged according to general nativity and race of father and birthplace of child. Native-born children of native father are added for comparative purposes. TABLE 115.-Number and per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at
school, and at work, by general nativity and race of father and by birthplace of child.
(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more children born in the United States and also 20 or more
born abroad. The native-born are shown for comparative purposes.}
The purpose of this table is to contrast the status of nativeborn and foreign-born children 6 and under 16 years of age of the
For example, it shows for the Polish race that 20.4 per cent of the children born in the United States and 35.5 per cent of those born abroad are at home, 77 per cent of the children born in this country and 62.7 per cent of those born abroad are in school, and 2.7 per cent of the children born in the United States and 1.8 per cent of those of foreign birth are at work.
The relative degree of naturalization is also a very pertinent factor in determining the tendency of the races of recent immigration toward assimilation, and adaptation to, and interest in, American institutions. In this connection the following tables, based upon data secured from individual mine workers, show the present political condition of foreign-born males who were 21 years of age or over at the time of immigration to the United States, according to residence in the United States, and race.
TABLE 116.-Present political condition of foreign-born male employees who have been in the United States 5 years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming, by race.
(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)
[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States.]
• Not computed, owing to small number involved.