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Number of employees of each general nativity for whom detailed information was secured.

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The following table shows, by locality, the race of the male employees for whom information was secured:

Table 13.Race of male employees for whom information was secured, by locality; per

cent distribution.

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Native-born of native father:
White.

32.0

13.1 Negro.

3.1

1.9 Indian.

.0

.0 Native-born of foreign father, by country of birth of father: Australia.

(a) (a) Austria-Hungary

9

1.2 Belgium..

1

.1 Canada.

.1 Denmark.

(a) England.

3.1

2.0 France..

.4

.1 Germany

4.7

2.5 Greece.

.0

.0 Ireland.

1.7

1.6 Italy. Mexico..

0 Netherlands.

(a) Norway.

.0 Roumania.

.0

(a) Russia.

.3 Scotland.

1.5 Sweden.

.1 Switzerland

.1 Wales.

1.1 Africa (country not specified).

.0

.0 Foreign-born, by race: Armenian

.0

.0 Bohemian and Moravian.

1.4

.9 Bosnian..

.0 (a) Bulgarian.

.1

1 Canadian, French.

.1

(a) Canadian, Other

(a) Croatian.

1.0 Cuban. Dalmatian.

.0

(a) Danish.

(a) (a) Dutch.

.1

.1 English

4.3 Finnish

.2

.1 Flemish.

.0 French.

1.0 German.

4.6

3. Greek..

.1 Hebrew (other than Russian).

(a) (a) Herzegovinian.

.0 la) Irish,

.7

1.3 Italian, North.

9.2

6.9 Italian, South

2.3

4.6 Italian (not specified)

(a)

..2 Lithuanian.

5.8

1.3 Macedonian.

.0 (a) Magyar..

3.5

7.2 Mexican..

(a)

.0 Montenegrin.

.2 (a) Norwegian

(a) (a) Polish.

4.4 12.3 Portuguese

.0 (a) Roumanian

.1

.2 Russian.

2.0

2.6 Ruthenian

.1

.6 Scotch. Scotch-Irish

(a)

.1 Servian.

.1

.2 Slovak..

20.3 a Less than 0.05 per cent.

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TABLE 13.-Race of male employees for whom information was secured, by locality; per

ceni distribution-Continued.

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The investigation in Arkansas, Texas, Kentucky, and Tennessee I was not made in as great detail as in other States, because a prelim

inary survey revealed the fact that comparatively small numbers of recent immigrants were employed in these States. At the time the · field work was in progress conditions in Texas and Arkansas were abnormal, and it was found that an investigation would not have yielded true results. It was also planned to study the coke industry in conjunction with bituminous mining and to embody the results of the investigation in a separate report. In the present report, however, it has been found necessary to include in the tabulations of bituminous coal mining the returns secured from employees of coke works, and to make no distinction, except in historical and descriptive matter, between mines engaged exclusively in the production of coal and mines having coke ovens in connection with their coal operations. In 1905, 10,154 persons were employed in the coke industry in Pennsylvania, 2,155 in Alabama, 1,094 in Virginia, and 2,533 in West Virginia. Detailed information was secured for about 5,000 coke employees in Pennsylvania and a comparatively small number in Virginia, West Virginia, and Alabama. These returns are included in the tabulations of this report.

a Twelfth Census, Special Reports on Selected Manufactures; Pt. IV, pp. 515, 528, 529,

The following comparative figures will show in a summary way the territory covered, as well as the comparative amount of information secured:

TABLE 14.-- Comparative scope of investigation of employees.

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a The statistics as to the number of employees in the different bituminous fields in 1908 are not available. A comparison of the employees investigated with these figures would be more accurate, because the field work was done in 1908. At the same time it would make a more favorable showing for the investigation, because depression in most fields was experienced in 1908 and a smaller number employed than in 1907. It is well to note, therefore, that the investigation covered a wide territory and more mines than would seem to be indicated by the figures. The figures in this column are compiled from various state reports.

The first column in the table shows the total number of employees in the bituminous coal industry within the geographical area investigated; the second column shows the number of employees covered by the study of individual employees; the last column indicates the per cent of the employees covered by the investigation as compared with the total number employed in the industry.

The number of persons from whom data were secured, as shown in the table above, was 21.8 per cent of the total number employed in the area of the investigation. The investigation and tabulations may therefore be said to be comprehensive and representative of the territory and conditions covered

In addition to the study of employees, 2,371 households, comprising 14,229 persons, were studied. The table next presented shows the number of households studied, together with the number and sex of persons within the households for whom detailed information was secured.

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Pennsylvania
Midddle West.
Southwest.
South.

1,340

171 309 476

8,871

758 1,893 2,305

3,747

373 1,281 1,241

3,066

343

6,813

716 1,800 2,250

519 1,009

Totalt

2,371

14, 229

6,861

5,113

11,974

a The schedules used and the field methods employed in collecting data are discussed in detail in the summary report on manufacturing and mining.

• This total includes households not given in the localities, because within a locality no race was tabulated unless 10 or more schedules were secured.

METHOD OF PRESENTING DATA COLLECTED.

In preparing the report the following divisions have been adopted in the discussion and presentation of the data:

1. Presentation of industry as a whole.- This part of the report affords a brief summary statement of the facts and conditions developed by the investigation.

2. Geographical areas.-A division has been made following the distribution of the bituminous mining industry in the United States, principally for the following reasons: (a) To show difference in working and other conditions in the different sections of the country; (b) to compare the status of the various races under different environments; (c) to exhibit relative inducements to immigration offered by different sections of the country.

3. Detailed reports on selected communities. By selecting for intensive study representative communities connected with the industry, it has been thought (a) that a verification of the tendencies exhibited by the more extended tabulations might be had; (b) that direct effects of recent immigration upon American life and institutions, not covered by the statistical tables, might be presented; (c) that more definite conclusions as to the economic effects of immigration might be reached.

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