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TABLE 107.- Visits abroad made by foreign-born male employees, by years in the United States and race.
(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)
By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only races with 100 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]
Of the 33,188 foreign-born males reporting, 17.5 per cent are shown by the foregoing table to have made one or more visits abroad. Those who have been in this country under five years show 10 per cent who have made visits abroad; those here between five and nine years show 21 per cent; and those with a residence of ten years or over show 22.4 per cent of their number making such visits; indicating for the total foreign-born an increasing per cent visiting their native lands as the period of residence in the United States is extended.
Immigrants from Mexico show the highest per cent visiting their native land, 37 per cent of those who have been in this country under five years, 30.4 per cent of those here between five and nine years, and 31.4 per cent of those with a residence of ten years or over, having made one or more visits to Mexico. Most of the Mexicans reporting were from the coal mines of Oklahoma, and as the trip from there to Mexico is neither a long nor an expensive one, many Mexicans visit their native land each summer, returning to this country in the fall, when work is more steady. Montenegrins show the lowest per cent who make visits abroad, only 3.2 per cent of the total number reporting having visited abroad. On account of the small number of this race from whom data were secured, however, the figures given are not conclusive. Races from northern Europe given in the table include English, Irish, Scotch, Welsh, French, German, and Swedish. Of these races the Scotch show the highest per cent visiting Europe,
per cent of the 803 reporting. Of Scotchmen 15.1 per cent of those who have been in this country under five years, 36.7 per cent of those here between five and nine years, and 27.8 of those
Per cent of foreign-born male employees reporting one or more visits abroad, by years in the United States and race.
[This chart shows only races with 1,000 or more employees reporting.]
with a residence of ten years or over, have made visits to their native land. Germans rank the lowest in the matter of visits abroad among the races in this group, or 8 per cent of a total of 1,876 reporting. Of the total number in the United States under five years 4.2 per cent have visited abroad; of those with a residence of between five and nine years 7.3 per cent, and of those here ten years or over 9.1 per cent. It was found that many Germans came to this country in order to escape military service and, consequently, do not visit Europe for fear of being forced into the army. The small numbers returning to their home country would also indicate that the interests of members of this race who are here are thoroughly centered in the United States. The percentages show that more visits abroad were made by races from Great Britain than by the other races included in the group from northern Europe. Of the English-speaking races, the Irish show the lowest per cent; of 452 reporting, only 14.6 per cent have visited abroad.
Both North and South Italians show a large per cent visiting abroad. Of the 5,145 North Italians reporting, 23 per cent have visited their native country. Those of this race in this country under five years show 9.9 per cent making visits abroad; those here between five and nine years show 26 per cent, and those with a residence of ten years or over show 38.3 per cent. Data were secured from 2,936 South Italians, 24.3 per cent of whom have made one or more visits abroad; the proportions of those visiting abroad are 14.5 per cent of those in this country under five years, 29.9 per cent of those here between five and nine years, and 36.3 per cent of those with a residence of ten years or over.
Slavic races include the Croatian, Polish, Russian, Slovak, Slovenian, and other races reporting in smaller numbers. Of the races in this group, the Polish, Russian, and Slovenian each report 11.5 per cent visiting abroad, and the Croatians report 16.3 per cent. Of the 5,370 of the Slovak race reporting, 21.9 per cent have visited their native land.
Lithuanians, numbering 1,490, show only 7.4 per cent making visits abroad. Of those of this race in the United States under five years, 2.7 per cent have made one or more visits to the home country; those with a residence between five and nine years show 6.8 per cent, and those here ten years or over show 10.9 per cent. Members of this race have come to this country with the idea of making it their permanent home, and of those interviewed very few expressed any desire to visit their native land.
The significant showing of the table in its bearing upon the character of recent immigration as contrasted with that of past years is the fact that the races of old immigration, as a rule, revisit their native lands only after an extended residence in the United States, indicating that the races have become more or less permanently established in this country, and the visits abroad are mainly for the purpose of renewing temporarily old ties and associations. On the other hand, the races of recent immigration revisit Europe with comparatively greater frequency and after a shorter period of residence in this country, which makes them a more floating and transitory part of the population.
Per cent of foreign-born male employees reporting one or more visits abroad, by race. [This chart shows only races with 1,000 or more employees reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]
The percentage of foreign-born males making one or more visits abroad is set forth by locality and by race in the following table:
TABLE 108.-Per cent of foreign-born male employees reporting one or more visits abroad, by locality and by race.
(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)
[This table includes only races with 100 or more males reporting in each of two or more localities. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]
a Not computed, owing to small number involved.
An inspection of the totals of the preceding table shows that the percentages of males of all races, making trips abroad differ but little for the several localities. The variation among the entries is within 6 points, the highest percentage for any one locality being
entered for the South.
There are seven races for which percentages are computed in every locality. These may be divided into two groups, the first to include Germans, English, and Scotch, and the second, Poles, Slovaks, and North and South Italians. In the first group the Germans show the lowest percentages for all localities, ranging from 7.3 in the Middle West to 9.2 in the South. On the other hand, the Scotch included in the same group show not only the highest percentage for this group, but, with the exception of the South Italians in Pennsylvania, the highest percentage for all localities. In the second group the Italians report the highest average proportions, varying between 20 and 30 per cent. The entries for the other two races in the second group are comparatively low, except for the Poles in the Southwest and the Slovaks in Pennsylvania and the South.
AGE CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES AND MEMBERS OF THEIR HOUSE
Information as to the ages of the coal-mining employees and the members of their households is of value as indicating both the general composition of the working body and something of the conditions under which the workers live. Data upon this subject were secured by means of the household study, and are presented in the tables which follow. The classification is according to age groups, sex, and general nativity and race of heads of households. The presentation is by percentages.