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On the basis of the information furnished by 32,966 individuals in the foregoing table, it is seen that 72.1 per cent of this number, or nearly three-fourths, have their wives in the United States.

The table also shows that one-third of the races furnishing information report that more than 90 per cent of the husbands have their wives in the United States. The races that comprise this group are the older immigrants to this country, principally from Great Britain and northern Europe, together with the Bohemians and Moravians and the Mexicans. The proportions of these races with wives in the United States range from 98.5 per cent of the Swedish and Welsh to 92.5 per cent of the Bohemians and Moravians.

Among the more recent immigrant races the proportion of husbands with wives in the United States is by no means so large. Only one race, the Lithuanian, shows 80 per cent or over of husbands having wives in this country; four races, the Finnish, North Italian, Polish, and Slovenian, show from 70 to 75 per cent each; five, the Greek, South Italian, Italian not specified, Servian, and Slovak, show between 60 and 70 per cent; and three, the Magyar, Russian, and Ruthenian, show between 50 and 60 per cent. The Croatian shows 43.5 per cent of husbands with wives in the United States, while the Bulgarian, Montenegrin, and Roumanian races show 23.9, 22.7, and 19.6 per cent, respectively.

The following table shows the per cent of husbands who report wife abroad, by locality and race of husband: Table 105.—Per cent of foreign-born husbands who report wife abroad, by locality and by

race of husband.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 40 or more husbands reporting in each of two or more localities. The

total, however, is for all races.)

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a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

Of all husbands reporting in the foregoing table 27.9 per cent report that their wives are abroad. The greatest proportion of husbands whose wives are not in this country is found in the South. Of all husbands reporting from that locality 40.7 per cent report their wives

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abroad, as compared with 30.7 per cent of those reporting from Pennsylvania, 16.5 per cent from the Middle West, and 14.3 per cent from the Southwest.

The Croatians show a greater proportion of husbands whose wives are abroad than do any of the other races for whom information was secured.

The Croatians in Pennsylvania show a much larger proportion of wires abroad than is reported by this race in the Middle West, and those in the South report a percentage considerably higher still.

In the South and Pennsylvania there is little difference in the proportions of Magyar husbands reporting their wives abroad, each of these localities, however, showing a larger proportion than does the Middle West.

In regard to the South Italians, Poles, and Slovaks there is, as with the Magyars, very little difference between the South and Pennsylvania in the proportions of husbands whose wives are not living

in the United States, the South in each instance reporting a slightly a larger proportion than Pennsylvania, and each of these localities

showing a larger proportion thắn the Middle West or Southwest.

As previously stated, the above-mentioned races in the South show larger proportions with wives abroad than are shown in any other locality, whereas of the North Italians, Russians, and Slovenians, larger proportions are noted in Pennsylvania than elsewhere. Because of the small number of Russians and Slovenians reported from the South, & comparison of this with other localities is precluded. It will be noted, however, that the Russians' 47.1 per cent in Pennsylvania is a proportion considerably larger than that for the Middle West and very much larger than that for the Southwest. A similar statement is true of the Slovenians, except that there is not such a marked difference in the proportions. The proportions of the Lithuanian husbands in Pennsylvania and in the Middle West reporting wives abroad are identical, and are much higher than the proportion reported from the Southwest. As regards the remaining foreign-born husbands, the Bohemians and Moravians, French, Swedes, and Welsh show larger proportions in Pennsylvania with wives abroad, and the English, Irish, and Scotch larger proportions in the Middle West, than in any other

With the exception of the German husbands, 14.9 per cent of whom in the South report their wives abroad, the husbands among the older immigrant races in not a single locality report proportions equal to 10 per cent, while in the majority of cases these proportions are less than 5 per cent.

The table next presented indicates the relation between period of residence in the United States of married males and the location of their wives, or, in other words, the tendency on the part of wives who have been living abroad to join their husbands after the husbands have been in the United States a specified number of years.

locality.

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Table 106.–Per cent of foreign-born husbands who report wife abroad, by race of husband

and by years husband has been in the United States.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only races with 200 or more husbands reporting.)

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That a much larger proportion of males of the races from Great Britain and northern Europe than of those from southern and eastern Europe are accompanied by their wives upon entering this country, or send for them within a short time after their arrival, is apparent from the above table. For example, the English show that only 15.5 per cent of those who have been in the United States less than five years, 6.3 per cent of those with a residence of from five to nine years, and 0.3 per cent of those who have been in the United States ten years or over, have their wives abroad.

Of the more recent immigrants, those in the United States less than five years, the Russians show a larger proportion having their wives abroad than does any other race, their figure being 81 per cent. Closely following the Russians are the Croatians and Ruthenians, each showing over 75 per cent without their wives in this country: In the second period of residence group, comprising those in the United States from five to nine years, it is noticeable that, of these three races, the Russians have only 25.8 per cent with their wives abroad, as compared with 43.9 per cent of the Croatians and 32.7 per cent of the Ruthenians. Twenty-four and eight-tenths per cent of the Bohemians and Moravians with a residence of less than five years report wives abroad, as do only 4.2 per cent of those with a residence of from five to nine years, and 0.8 per cent of those who have been in the United States ten years or over. These percentages, it will be noted from the above table, are the smallest shown by any one of the more recent immigrant races.

The fact that a large proportion of the males of foreign-born races do eventually bring their wives to the United States, as shown in the above table, indicates a certain tendency on the part of these races, greater with some than others, toward making a permanent residence here.

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has been in the United States.

Per cent of foreign-born employees who report wife abroad, by race of husband and by years husband [This chart shows only races with 500 or more husbands reporting.]

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VISITS ABROAD.

Among the mine workers of recent immigration there is a constant movement in progress both within this country and between this country and Europe. Owing to the fact that a large proportion of mining employees of recent immigration are unmarried, and even when married are not in any considerable numbers property holders, and, at the same time, are unimpeded by personal belongings which are of value or difficult to transport, they move readily from one community to another of the coal industry, and, with equal facility, from coal mining to another industry, according to the fluctuating demands for labor. This tendency is especially noticeable in times of industrial depression, when there is an exodus of immigrant mine workers from the affected districts and an influx into communities and localities where work is still available. The mobility of the immigrant labor supply is also evident in the development of new coal fields, as in the case of the opening of the coal-producing territory of the Southwest, where immigrants are brought long distances to operate the new mines.

Immigrants also make many visits abroad. These visits may be made for one or all of several reasons. Many immigrants who have been in this country for a period of years return to their native land to bring over their wives and families; others owning property abroad return to settle up their affairs preparatory to making the United States their permanent home; a great many immigrants, especially those from southern and eastern Europe, come to this country with the idea of remaining only a few years, or until they can save sufficient money to return to their native land, and others go to Europe solely for a visit to friends and relatives. Very often during a strike or suspension in the coal-mining industry, numbers of immigrants return to Europe and remain there until work in the mines is resumed. For example, during a recent strike in Oklahoma, over 100 South Italians left one small mining town within a week and returned to Italy, where they remained until mining was resumed, bringing other immigrants with them when they returned to the United States. In other coal fields many immigrants declared that the cost of living was so much lower in Europe that in times of unsteady work or strikes in this country they could return to their native country and in five or six months' time the difference between what they would have to spend for living in the United States while idle and the cost of living abroad would pay their traveling expenses to and from Europe.

In the course of the individual study of foreign-born mining employees information regarding the number of visits made abroad was secured. These data are set forth in the table next presented, by race and period of residence in the United States.

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