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of the latter are widowed. Of the native-born, however, 95 are born of foreign father, of which number 70.5 per cent are single and 28.4 per cent married, which proportions are practically the reverse of those shown by either the whites native-born of native father or the foreign-born.
A comparison of all races represented by males 20 years of age or over shows that only five, the Mexicans, South Italians, Lithuanians, Poles, and Russians, report less than three-fourths of their numbers married, while the proportions of the others range from 87.5 per cent of the Slovaks to 75 per cent of the Ruthenians. Those races immediately following the Slovaks, and in the order named, are the Croatians, Irish, Magyars, and native whites.
In the first group, of those from 20 to 29 years of age, 48.5 per cent are single and 51.2 per cent married. The native-born, especially the native-born of foreign father, show a much smaller per cent married than do the foreign-born. A majority of the foreign races in the 20 to 29 year group show over 50 per cent of their males single, the proportions ranging from 66.7 per cent of the Germans to 53.1 per cent of the Ruthenians. Of those showing less than 50 per cent single, the Slovaks with 28.1 per cent, and the Croatians with 30.3 per cent, are the lowest; the others range from 38.6 per cent of the Magyars to 46.5 per cent of the North Italians, the native whites reporting 43.8 per cent single and not any widowed. The Russians and Poles in this group report as widowed 2.3 and 0.4 per cent, respectively.
In the second group, 30 to 44 years of age, it is seen that, of 1,789 males reporting, 90.8 per cent are married, as compared with 51.2 per cent in the first group. Of special interest in this group is the large gain shown by the native-born, 91 per cent of whom are married, as compared with 30.5 per cent in the previous group.
As between the native and foreign born males of the third group, 45 years of age or over, little difference in the proportions of single and married exists. The Croatians and Ruthenians each show 100 per cent married. The Mexicans and North Italians show the smallest proportions married and the largest proportions widowed, the former reporting 81.8 per cent married and 9.1 per cent widowed, while the latter report 83.3 per cent married and 8.3 per cent widowed. It is evident, in general, from the above comparisons that a larger per cent of all races marry between 30 and 44 years of age than during any other age period.
The conjugal condition of males by age groups having been discussed, it is important to note also this condition for the females in the households studied. The table shows that 96.3 per cent of the 2,299 females 20 years of age or over are married and only 1.4 per cent widowed. A very large majority, 2,014, reporting 98.1 per cent married and 1.4 per cent widowed, are foreign-born, only 285, reporting 83.9 per cent married and 2.1 per cent widowed, being native-born. Of all races represented by females 20 years of age or over, only two show over 1 per cent single, the native whites reporting 6.7 per cent and the Lithuanians 1.2 per cent. The largest proportion of married females is shown by the Magyars and Ruthenians, each race reporting 100 per cent, while the native whites, with 89.3 per cent, show the smallest proportion.
Of the foreign-born females from 20 to 29 years of age, 98.9 per cent are married, as compared with 74.4 per cent of the native-born.' Of the
native-born 84 are born of foreign father, and of this number 67.8 per cent are married and 31 per cent single. With the exception of the native whites, 77.2 per cent of whom are married and 3.5 per cent widowed, and the Poles, South Italians, Slovaks, and Lithuanians, all the races report 100 per cent as married.
In the second group, of females 30 to 44 years of age, only two races, the native whites with 2.9 per cent and the Slovaks with 0.5 per cent, show a proportion of their numbers as single; and only three races, the Croatians, North Italians, and Slovaks, show any of their numbers widowed. With the exceptions above noted, the races in this age group report each 100 per cent married.
The third age group is of interest in that it shows not one female from any of the races to be single, a very large proportion, as compared to the other age groups, being widowed.
The following table shows the per cent of male employees 20 years of age or over who are married, by locality and by general nativity and race.
TABLE 102.-Per cent of male employees 20 years of age or over who are married, by locality and by general nativity and race.
(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)
[This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting in each of two or more localities. The totals, however, are for all races.]
bituminous coal mining.
Total native-born of foreign father..
• Not computed, owing to small number involved.
Of the total reporting, 67.4 per cent are married. The native-born and the foreign-born show almost identical percentages. The persons
native-born of foreign father, however, have only 57.8 per cent married, as compared to 67.3 per cent of the foreign-born and 72.8 per cent of the whites native-born of native father. The totals show very little difference in the relative number of married men in each locality. Pennsylvania, with 68.6 per cent, has the largest proportion of married men. For the same reason that there is a larger proportion of married men in Pennsylvania, as shown by the totals, there are more races in that locality than in the others with high percentages of married males. The reason for the presence of a relatively larger number of married males in Pennsylvania is probably the longer residence of immigrants in that section. Native whites born of native father show about the same proportions of married men in the different localities. The variation is a little more noticeable among the persons native-born of foreign father, 61 per cent of those in the Southwest and only 54.9 per cent of those in the South being married. The Croatians, the Bohemians and Moravians, the Slovaks, and Slovenians show their highest relative number of married men in the Middle West. The Croatians there have 73.3 per cent married as compared with 58.9 per cent in Pennsylvania and 56.5 per cent in the South.
The French, the Germans, the Irish, the Magyars, the Russians, the Swedish, and the Welsh have larger proportions of married males in Pennsylvania than in the other localities. The English, the North Italians, the South Italians, and the Scotch have their highest percentages of married men in the South. Of the English in the South, 82.9 per cent are married, as compared with 74.5 per cent of those of the Middle West. The Lithuanians and the Poles are the only races showing their largest proportions of married men in the Southwest. In that section 52.6 per cent of the Lithuanians are married as compared with 34.1 per cent of the same race in the South.
The table next presented shows the per cent of all males 20 years of age or over in the households studied who are married, by locality and by general nativity and race of individual.
TABLE 103.-Per cent of males 20 years of age or over who are married, by locality and by general nativity and race of individual.
(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)
[This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting in each of two or more localities. The totals, however, are for all races.]
Total native-born of foreign father.
Total bituminous coal
This total includes persons in households not given in the localities, because within a locality no race was tabulated unless 10 or more schedules were secured.
Not computed, owing to small number involved.
The household study gives results different from those of the study of employees, and indicates that the four localities differ widely in their proportions of married males,
the percentages being 57.8 in the South, 74 in the Southwest, 82.3 in Pennsylvania, and 97.7 in the Middle West. The proportions of the foreign-born in the several localities are slightly higher than these figures. Of the native-born, 73.6 per cent in the Southwest are married, as compared with 41 per cent in Pennsylvania. In the Middle West, two races, the North Italians and Lithuanians, each report 98 per cent married, a larger proportion than is shown in Pennsylvania, and a much larger proportion than is shown in the Southwest by either of these races. The Slovaks, the whites native-born of native father, and the Poles show larger proportions married in the Southwest than in Pennsylvania. The South Italians and Magyars, represented in but two localities, show larger proportions married in Pennsylvania than in the South.
Because of economic conditions, the difficulty of securing a foothold in a new country when handicapped by the presence of a family, and the additional expense involved in the transportation of more than one, many of the married immigrants leave their wives abroad when coming to the United States. Money is, in most cases, sent abroad for the support of the wife in the old country. When sufficiently well established, the husband, if he intends to make the United States his permanent place of residence, sends for the wife, or, going abroad upon a visit, brings her back with him. On the other hand, the immigrant employee who is unmarried at the time of his arrival in the United States may, after a period of residence, marry and establish his home in this country. The place of residence of the wives of the married employees of foreign birth constitutes, therefore, a fair indication of the economic condition of the husband, upon the one hand, and of his intention to become a permanent resident of the United States, upon the other.
Table 104.- Per cent of foreign-born husbands who report wife in the United States and
per cent who report wife abroad, by race of husband.
(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 40 or more husbands reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign
Race of husband.
Num- Per cent report-
Race of husband.
Num. Per cent reportber
ing wile report
ing com- In plete United Abroad. data. States.
6.3 77.3 27.5 80.4
Bohemian and Moravian..
92. 5 23.9 43. 5 81.8 97.0 74. 4 94.0 95. 3 63. 2 98. 2 70.0 61.3 60.4 80.5 54. 5
7.5 76.1 56.5 18. 2
93.8 22. 7 72.5 19.6 55.6 56. 4 97.0 61.8 68.5 72.9 98.5 98.5
43 498 1,864
68 597 3, 361 2,237
53 882 2,818
3.0 25. 6 6.0 4.7 36.8
1.8 30. O 38. 7 39.6 19.5 45.5
. . . . . .
3.0 382 31.5 27.1 1. 3 1.5
Per cent of foreign-born employees who report wife abroad, by race of husband. [This chart shows only races with 500 or more husbands reporting.
BOHEMIAN AND MORAVIAN
The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]