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TABLE 95.—Per cent of persons 10 years of age or over who read, and per cent who read and

writé, by sex and general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Native-born of native father:

White.

Negro.
Native-born of foreign
father, by race of father:

English..
German.
Irish.
Italian, North
Italian, South
Lithuanian.
Magyar.
Polish.
Slovak

Welsh.
Foreign-born:

Bohemian and Mora

vian
Croatian.
English.
German
Irish.
Italian, North
Italian, South
Lithuanian.
Magyar.
Mexican
Polish
Roumanian.
Russian.
Ruthenian
Slovak.
Welsh.

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Grand total.
Total native-born of for-

eign father.
Total native-born.
Total foreign-born..

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Of the total number furnishing information for this table 23.5 per cent are not able to read and write, and 21.1 per cent are not able to read. In comparing the whites native-born of native father with the foreign-born, it is seen that among the former there are only 3.5 per cent unable to read and write as against 28.4 per cent among the latter. Comparing the native whites with natives born of foreign father, the same per cent able to read and write is found in both groups,

Of the foreign-born, the Bohemians and Moravians have only 2.4 per cent illiterate, the English 2.7 per cent, the Germans 8.6 per cent, the Irish 5.3 per cent, and the Welsh 11.6 per cent. The Magyars have 88.8 per cent able to read and write, while only 65.1 per cent of the Ruthenians and 56.7 per cent of the Lithuanians are able to read and write. Another striking difference is found in comparing the North Italians and South Italians, there being a considerably larger proportion unable to read and write among the South Italians than among the North Italians. A larger per cent of illiteracy is

found

among the women than among the men, for all races except the German and Irish. This difference between the sexes is especially marked among the South Italians, the Mexicans, and the Russians.

The next table shows by locality the per cent of persons 10 years of age or over in the households studied who read, by sex and by general nativity and race. TABLE 96.—Per cent of persons 10 years of age or over who read, by locality, by sex, and by

general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

(This table includes only races with 40 or more persons reporting in each of two or more localities. The

totals, however, are for all races.]

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& This total includes persons in households not given in the localities, because within a locality no race was tabulated unless 10 or more schedules were secured.

Not computed, owing to small number involved.

The foregoing table shows the Middle West in the lead, with 92.6 per cent of males and 89.4 per cent of females able to read. The Southwest ranks second, with 85.7 per cent of the males and 78.6 per cent of the females thus reported; Pennsylvania third, with 79.9 per cent and 73.7 per cent, respectively; and the South last, the percentage in this section being 75.2 for the males and 67.6 for the females. The males show a greater per cent of literacy than the females in each division.

The table next submitted shows the per cent of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over in the households studied who read, and the per cent who read and write, by years in the United States and by race of individual.

TABLE 97.Per cent of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over who read, and per

cent who read and write, by years in the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table

includes only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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Of the persons in the United States from five to nine years, the Bohemians and Moravians, the English, and the Welsh, show 100 per cent able to read and write. The Germans follow, with 92.3 per cent, and the Magyars report 87.2 per cent. The Slovaks and North Italians each report in excess of the general average. The Russians, with 50 per cent, have the smallest proportion, although the South Italians with 51.6 per cent and the Croatians with 52.8 per cent are only a little higher. The Lithuanians with 54.6 per cent able to read and write, and the Mexicans with 59.1 per cent, are far below the average for the total of all races with a residence of five to nine years.

The North Italians, Magyars, and Roumanians who have been in the United States less than five years show a greater proportion able to read and write than is shown by those of their races here a longer time. The race ranking first in this classification is the Irish, all of whom can read and write. The English follow, with 96.8 per cent, and the Bohemians and Moravians with 95 per cent. The Welsh percentage for those with a residence under five years is 94.1; the Magyar, 89.4; the German, 83.7; and the North Italian, 81.8. The Roumanians and Slovaks, each showing a little over 80 per cent, are considerably above the general average for all races with a period of residence less than five years, while the Poles, with 69.7 per cent, fall just below it. The Mexicans show the greatest illiteracy among the most recent comers, only 44.4 per cent being able to read and write. The Russians come next, with 46.7 per cent, the South Italians next with 47 per cent, and the Lithuanians and Croatians show 52.5 and 52.7 per cent, respectively, able to read and write.

Of persons ten or more years in the United States, the Bohemians and Moravians, with 100 per cent able to read, stand highest. The English and Germans follow, with 97 per cent in each case, and the Irish, with 96.3 per cent are not far behind. The Magyars report 90.8 per cent able to read, the Welsh percentage is 90.2, and the North Italian is 80.9. These races are the only ones exceeding the general average of 77.5 per cent. The Mexicans rank the lowest of all, with the Croatians but slightly higher, their percentages being 49.3 and 49.4 respectively.

Of those in the United States as much as five years but less than ten, all of the Bohemians and Moravians, English, and Welsh are able to read. The Germans, Magyars, Slovaks, and North Italians follow in the order indicated, and each exceeds the general average of 73.8 per cent for all races. The Russians, with only 50 per cent of their people able to read, rank the lowest, and the South Italian 51.6, Croatian 54.3, and Mexican 59.1, are percentages which make a very unfavorable showing.

The most recent immigrants, or those who have a residence under five years, show 72.5 per cent of their number able to read. All of the Irish furnishing information are able to read. The English take second rank with 96.8 per cent, followed by the Bohemians and Moravians with 95 per cent, the Welsh with 94.1 per cent, and the Magyars with 93.2 per cent. The Mexican 44.4 per cent is the lowest among the races with this period of residence. The percentages for the Russians, South Italians, Croatians, and Lithuanians are also very low.

The table next presented makes a comparison of the races with regard to literacy of all persons who at the time of furnishing information were 10 years of age or over, by age at time of arrival in the United States, and by race.

TABLE 98.—Per cent of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over who read, and per cent who read and write, by age at time of coming to the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

This table includes only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign

born.)

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Total.

6, 257

88.0

72.5

86.4

69.4

a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

From the foregoing table it appears that foreign-born persons, with the exception of the English and Mexicans, who were under 14 at time of coming to the United States show a larger proportion who are literate than do those who were 14 or over at time of coming. This difference in literacy in favor of those under 14 at time of coming is most marked among the Russians, Croatians, and Roumanians.

Comparing those who were under 14 at time of coming, it will be seen, that the Bohemians and Moravians, Germans, Roumanians, and Welsh report their entire numbers as being able to both read and write, while the English, Irish, North Italians, Magyars, and Slovaks report larger proportions with ability to both read and write than that shown for the total of all races. Those below the percentage for the total are the Poles, Russians, Ruthenians, South Italians, and Mexicans.

Of the foreign-born who were 14 or over at the time of coming to the United States, the English, Bohemians and Moravians, Irish, Germans, Magyars, Welsh, North Italians, and Roumanians, in the order named, show larger proportions with ability to both read and write than is shown for the total in this class,

CONJUGAL CONDITION.

The conjugal condition of the immigrant labor supply is also of importance in its bearing upon living arrangements, migratory habits, and permanent assimilation.

The following table is entered for the purpose of showing, by general nativity and race, the per cent of males 20 years of age or over who are single, married, or widowed.

Table 99.-Per cent of male employees 20 years of age or over in each conjugal condi

tion, by general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

(This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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Native-born of native father:

White..

Negro..
Native-born of foreign father, by country of birth of father:

Austria-Hungary,
Canada.
England.
France..
Germany.
Ireland.
Italy..
Russia.
Scotland.

Wales.
Foreign-born, by race:

Bohemian and Moravian.
Bulgarian..
Croatian..
Dutch
English.
Finnish,
French..
German.
Greek.
Irish.

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698

164 2, 180

95

18.8 28. 7 38. 9 27.4 18.1 35.8 25. 3 20.7 33. 3 24.8

80.4
67.7
59.8
71.6
76.9
64.2
71.3
76.0
66. 7
68.3

.9 3.7 1.3 1.1 5.0

2, 406

: : : : :

.0 3.4 3.3

.0 6.9

67 728 2,551

105 913

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