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In this table 161 native-born and 2,210 foreign-born households are represented. The average number of rooms per apartment is 4.27 in the case of the native-born, and 3.73 in the case of the foreign-born. The corresponding average numbers of sleeping rooms per apartment are 2.04 and 2.02, or, in other words, the apartments used by the native-born average about half a room more than the apartments occupied by the foreign-born, and this additional space is not devoted to sleeping purposes. Not any of the native-born households use all rooms for sleeping, but 27.3 per cent use all but one room, and 36 per cent use all but two. Of the foreign-born households, 2.2 per cent use all rooms for sleeping, 44.7 per cent use all but one room, and 36.9 per cent use all but two rooms. The 108 households whose heads are whites native-born of native father, have an average of 4.41 rooms per apartment; this race has no households which use all rooms for sleeping, but 23.1 per cent use all but one room for that purpose, and 35.2 per cent use all but two. The three foreign-born races represented by the largest number of households are the North Italians, Poles, and Slovaks. The North Italians report 3.68 rooms and 2.06 sleeping rooms per apartment. Nine-tenths of 1 per cent of their households use all rooms for sleeping, 52.2 per cent all but one room, and 33.9 per cent all but two rooms. The Poles report 3.60 rooms and 1.95 sleeping rooms per household. Of their households, 3.3 per cent use all rooms for sleeping, 45.5 per cent all but one room, and 36.5 per cent all but two rooms. The Slovak apartments average 3.66 rooms and 1.87 sleeping rooms. Two and two-tenths per cent of the Slovak households use all rooms for sleeping, 41.6 per cent all but one room, and 38.1 per cent all but two rooms.

The per cent of households of the principal races who use either all rooms or all but one room as sleeping rooms, is shown by geographical divisions in the next table presented.

TABLE 93.-Per-cent of households regularly sleeping in all rooms, or all except 1 room, by locality and by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting in each of two or more localities. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Total native-born of foreign father.
Total native-born...

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48.7

Total bituminous coal

mining.a

23. 1

45.5

13.7

53. 1

48.0

59.8

47.3

48.8

43.8

45.5

3.8

27.3

Total foreign-born..

40.9

40.6

46.9

70.5

46.9

This total includes households not given in the localities, because within a locality no race was tabulated unless 10 or more schedules were secured.

Not computed, owing to small number involved.

The great variations in the percentages within each locality indicate that the use for sleeping purposes of all rooms, including the kitchen, or the use of all rooms except one, which is usually the joint kitchen, dining room, and living room, is not entirely the result of local custom. The proportions vary in the Middle West from 4.5 per cent of the households whose heads are whites native-born of native father to 69.6 per cent of the Polish; in Pennsylvania, from 6.7 per cent of the German households to 70.4 per cent of the Lithuanian; in the South, from 20 per cent of the North Italian to 71 per cent of the Polish; and in the Southwest, from 39.6 per cent of the whites native-born of native father to 97.2 per cent of the Polish.

It will be seen that the Poles have generally the highest per cent of households occupying all rooms or all but one room for sleeping: This is the case in every locality except Pennsylvania, in which locality they rank third from the lowest among the races of the community.

CHAPTER VI.

SALIENT CHARACTERISTICS.

Literacy-Conjugal condition—Visits abroad—Age classification of employees and members of their households—[Text Tables 94 to 111 and General Tables 32 to 41).

LITERACY.

As regards the literacy of mine workers, the following table shows for 86,908 individual bituminous mining employees, by general nativity and race, the per cent who can read and the per cent who can both read and write.

Table 94—Per cent of male employees who read, and per cent who read and write, by gen

eral nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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Of the 86,908 male employees covered by this table, 54,090 are foreign-born and 32,818 are native-born. of the native-born, 8,240 were born of foreign father, 18,097 are whites born of native father, and 6,479 are negroes born of native father. Of the whole number

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Per cent of male employees who read and write, by general nativity and race. [This chart shows only races with 1,000 or more employees reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

reporting, 14.9 per cent are unable to read and write. Of the foreignborn, 80.9 per cent are reported as being able to read and write, while 92 per cent of all native-born, 96.1 per cent of native whites born of native father, and 97.9 per cent of natives born of foreign father can read and write. Of native negroes, only 73 per cent are able to read and write.

Of the native-born of foreign father, 2.1 per cent are unable to read and write. This is a better showing than that made by the nativeborn whites of native father, of whose number 3.9 per cent are unable to read and write.

In practically all cases, the per cent able to read is but slightly higher than the per cent able to both read and write. Of the total number reporting, 1.6 per cent more are able to read than are able to both read and write. Considerable difference in this respect is noted among the Mexicans, Lithuanians, and Finns. The native-born whose fathers were born in Austria-Hungary, Italy, or Russia are the only representatives of the persons native-born of foreign father who have a larger per cent of illiterates than have the whites nativeborn of native father. The greatest degree of illiteracy among persons native-born of foreign father is found among those whose fathers were born in Italy; Of 1,775 reporting father born in England, 98.1 per cent are able to read and write, and of 2,184 natives with fathers born in Germany, 98.9 per cent are able to read and write.

Of the foreign-born, the Dutch, English, Scotch, and Swedes report a higher per cent of literacy than do native whites born of native father. The Germans report practically the same per cent, but all other foreign-born races have a lower per cent of literacy than have the native whites born of native father.

Only 64.8 per cent of the Croatians and 67.1 per cent of the Russians are able to both read and write, as compared with 80.3 per cent of the Slovaks, 81.6 per cent of the Slovenians, and 88 per cent of the Magyars. Of the North Italians, 86.6 per cent read and write. The South Italians, on the other hand, have only 62.7 per cent able both to read and to write. Of the races of southern Europe, the Bohemians and Moravians lead in the point of literacy. The following races rank in the order named, the first having the highest per cent of literacy: Bohemian and Moravian, Magyar, North Italian, Slovenian, Slovak, Lithuanian, Polish, Russian, Croatian, Greek, South Italian, and Ruthenian. As a whole, this table emphasizes the fact that there are more illiterates among immigrants from southern and eastern Europe than among those from northern Europe and Great Britain.

In the households studied the heads of which were mine workers, information relative to literacy was also obtained from 7,834 persons 10 years of age or over. Of this number, 4,747 were males and 3,087 were females. As to general nativity, 6,257 were foreign-born, 1,041 were native-born of foreign father, 452 were native-born white of native father, and 81 were native-born negroes. The number and per cent who read and who read and write are presented in the table following, by general nativity and race.

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