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Table 79.- Average number of rooms per household, by locality and by general nativity

and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 10 or more households reporting in each of two or more localities. The

totals, however, are for all races.)

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a This total includes households not given in the localities, because within a locality no race was tabulated unless 10 or more schedules were secured.

If the total number of households shown by the above table be considered, the average number of rooms per apartment is lowest in the Southwest, second in the Middle West, third in the South, and highest in Pennsylvania. In the three localities where the nativeborn and foreign-born are represented, the average for the nativeborn is higher than the average for the foreign-born. The figures are: In the Middle West, native-born 4.45 rooms and foreign-born 3.58; in Pennsylvania, native-born 5.27 and foreign-born 3.89; and in the Southwest, native-born 3.65 and foreign-born 3.27.

The variations by race within localities are of interest. In the Southwest the Irish report 4.18 rooms per apartment, the highest average for the locality. They are followed by the whites nativeborn of native father, with 3.85 rooms, and by the Lithuanians, with 3.50 rooms. The Poles report an average of 2.78 rooms, the lowest in the locality. In Pennsylvania, where the average number of rooms per apartment is highest, the households whose heads are whites native-born of native father have the largest apartments, the average number of rooms being 5.27. The Irish, with an average of 4.90, are second, and the Lithuanians, with an average of 3.69 rooms, are the lowest in the locality.

SIZE OF HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

As regards the range in size of households, the table which follows shows for each race the per cent of households of each specified num

ber of persons.

TABLE 80.- Per cent of households of each specified number of persons, by general nativity

and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

(This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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The average number of persons in the 2,371 households covered by the above table is 6. Two-tenths of 1 per cent of the total number of households include but 1 person each; 7.9 per cent, 2 persons; 11.8 per cent, 3 persons; 14.2 per cent, 4 persons; 14.1 per cent, 5 persons; 13.4 per cent, 6 persons; 11.3 per cent, 7 persons; 10.3 per cent, 8 persons; 6 per cent, 9 persons; and 10.7 per cent, 10 or more persons.

The Croatians have the highest average, 7.14 persons per household, no fewer than 22.7 per cent of the Croatian households consisting of 10 or more persons.

Other races having a considerable percentage of households of 10 or more persons are the Russian with 16.7 per cent, the Magyar with 15.8 per cent, the South Italian with 14.5 per cent, and the Ruthenian with 14 per cent.

The following table shows for each race the per cent of households in each of the four geographical divisions having 6 or more persons per household:

TABLE 81.-Per cent of households of 6 or more persons each, by locality and by general

nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting in each of two or more localities. The

totals, however, are for all races.)

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a This total includes households not given in the localities, because within a locality no race was tabulated unless 10 or more schedules were secured.

It has already been pointed out that, for the 2,371 households studied, the average number of persons per household is 6. The foregoing table gives the per cent of households in which the number of persons is the average or greater than the average, by race, for each geographical division.

The per cents for the total number of households studied are: Pennsylvania, 61.5; South, 53.1; Southwest, 34.4; and Middle West, 24.6. Pennsylvania has the highest proportion of large households, not only when the total number of households is considered, but also for the households of each race excepting the Magyar and the Slovak. For these two races the percentages are: Magyars in Pennsylvania 49.9 and in the South 60.8; Slovaks in Pennsylvania 57.8 and in the South 71.3.

In Pennsylvania, households of 6 or more persons are most common among the South Italians, who have 78.1 per cent. Then follow in order the Poles with 67.6 per cent, the Croatians with 67.5 per cent, and the North Italians with 66.7 per cent. The household of 6 or more persons is least common among the Magyars, the percentage of such households being 49.9, or about one-half. This is the only foreign race in this locality with a lower per cent than that of the whites native-born of native father.

CONGESTION.

The degree of congestion indicated in the foregoing tables is set forth in greater detail in the series of tabulations next presented. The first table submitted shows for each race the average number of persons occupying apartments of each specified number of rooms.

TABLE 82.— Average number of persons in apartments of each specified number of rooms, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 100 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all

races.)

Average number of persons in apartments of each specified number of rooms.

General nativity and race of head of housebold.

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Native-born of native

father, White Foreign-born:

Croatian..
Italian, North
Italian, South
Lithuanian.
Magyar..
Polish
Slovak.

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3. 11 3. 45 4. 21 3. 93 4.14 4.74

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The table shows that, on the whole, the worst crowding is found in the small apartments. Of all households studied, there are but 17 occupying 1-room apartments, in which the average number of persons is 2.88; the average number of persons per household in 2-room apartments is 3.93, or 1.97 per room; the average in the 3-room apartments is 5.28, or 1.76 per room; in 4-room apartments 6.59, or 1.65 per room; in 5-room apartments 6.90, or 1.38 per room; in 6-room apartments 7.08, or 1.18 per room; and in apartments of 7 or more rooms 7.50 per household. Omitting the few households living in 1-room apartments, the greatest congestion is in the 2-room apartments, among the Lithuanians, the Magyars, the Poles, and the Slovaks. The greatest degree of congestion in the 3-room apartments is shown by the Slovaks, in the 4-room apartments by the South Italians and Croatians, in the 5-room apartments by the South Italians, and in those of 6 rooms by the North Italians and Poles. In the case of all races except the Croatian and the South Italian, there is in general a gradual lessening of the crowding per room as the number of rooms increases.

The following table shows, in summary form for all races represented by 10 or more households, the average number of persons per apartment, per room, and per sleeping room:

TABLE 83.-Average number of persons per apartment, per room, and per sleeping room, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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Grand total.

Total native-born of foreign father.
Total native-born..
Total foreign-born...

2,371

26 161

2,210

6.00

5.50

4.73

6.09

1.59

1.16

1.11

1.63

2.97

2.51

2.32

3.02

It may be noted that the averages per apartment, per room, and per sleeping room are all considerably higher for the total foreignborn than for the total native-born, and that all three of the averages for the total native-born of foreign father are higher than the corresponding averages for white persons native-born of native father.

The average number of persons per apartment is given for each mining area in the table next presented.

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