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those following, which give the average number of boarders or lodgers per household. In one tabulation the average is based on the total number of households reporting, and in another it is based on the number of households keeping boarders or lodgers. TABLE 74.- Average number of boarders or lodgers per household, by general nativity and

race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (Information relating to boarders or lodgers covers only immediate time of taking schedule, and not the

entire year. Boarders are persons who receive both board and lodging.)

General nativity and race of head of

household.

Average number of

boarders or lodgers

per household
Number of
Total households Number of
number of keeping boarders

Based on households. boarders or lodgers. Based on number of or lodgers.

total num- households

ber of keeping households. boarders

or lodgers.

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Native-born of native father:

White.....

Negro..
Native-born of foreign father, by race of
father:
English.

Irish.
Foreign-born:

Bohemian and Moravian.
Croatian..
English.
French.
German
Irish
Italian, North
Italian, South
Lithuanian
Magyar..
Mexican.
Polish.
Roumanian.
Russian.
Ruthenian
Scotch
Slovak.
Slovenian
Welsh...

Grand total...
Total native-born of foreign father.
Total native-born.
Total foreign-born

16 132 27 11 51 50 316 200 179 241

42 334 10 42 43 11 454 12 39

3. 52 3. 86 2.88 3.91

98

15

3 419 398 282 505

15 576

20 113 89

4 628 19 1

129

9 174

4 24 27

3
175

5
1

. 29

06 1.33 1.99 1.58 2. 10

. 36 1.72 2.00 2.69 2. 07

.36 1.38 1.58

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.03

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a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

The column in the table above which presents the average number of boarders or lodgers per household based on the total number of households, indicates the differences in practice among the races regarding boarders' or lodgers. The last column shows the degree of congestion within the households.

The column containing the averages based on the total number of households shows for the Croatians an average of 3.39 boarders or lodgers for each household studied, for the Russians an average of 2.69, for the Magyars 2.10, for the Ruthenians 2.07, and for the Roumanians 2 boarders or lodgers. The 108 households whose heads are whites native-born of native father have only 4 boarders or lodgers, or an average of but 0.04 per household.

The last column of the table, which indicates the degree of crowding within the household, shows that the Croatians have an average of 5.60 boarders or lodgers, the Russians 4.71, the Magyars 3.91, and the South Italians 3.86.

The same contrast between the native-born and the older immigrant races on the one hand, and the recent immigrant races on the other, is shown by this table as by the previous tables relating to boarders or lodgers.

The table next submitted exhibits for each of the bituminous coalmining areas studied, the average number of boarders or lodgers per household, based on the total number of households studied.

TABLE 75.— Average number of boarders or lodgers, based on total number of households,

by locality and by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOI'SEHOLDS.) [Information relating to boarders or lodgers covers only immediate time of taking schedule, and not the entire year. Boarders are persons who receive both board and lodging. The races included are only those with 10 or more households reporting in each of two or more localities. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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a This total includes households not given in the localities, because within a locality no race was tabulated unless 10 or more schedules were secured.

It would seem from the table above that the number of boarders or lodgers per household is as much a matter of locality as of race. For all households the average number of boarders or lodgers per household is: Middle West 0.25, Southwest 0.42, Pennsylvania 1.98, and South 2.06; or, in other words, in the Middle West the number of boarders or lodgers is at the rate of 25 to every 100 households, in the Southwest 42 to every 100 households, in Pennsylvania 198 to every 100 households, and in the South 206 to every 100 households. Four races-North Italians, South Italians, Lithuanians, and Poles—are represented in each of the four geographical divisions. For each of these races it will be seen that the average number of boarders or lodgers is highest in Pennsylvania; for the North Italians, South Italians, and Lithuanians the lowest average is in the Middle West; for the Poles the lowest average is in the South. The Magyars and Slovaks are represented in all geographical divisions except the Middle West. Each of these races has the highest average number of boarders or lodgers per household in the South and the lowest average in the Southwest. The highest average for any race in any locality is reported by the Croatians in Pennsylvania, who average 4.04 boarders or lodgers per household. It is apparent that no races have an average number per household of 2 or more, except in Pennsylvania and the South, and that in these two localities the average is 2 or more in the households of immigrants from the south and east of Europe only.

The table which immediately follows supplements the one preceding by showing for each mining area the average number of boarders or lodgers per household, based on the number of households keeping boarders or lodgers.

TABLE 76.- Average number of boarders or lodgers, based on number of households keeping

boarders or lodgers, by locality and by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) Information relating to boarders or lodgers covers only immediate time of taking schedule, and not the entire year. Boarders are persons who receive both board and lodging: The races included are only those with 10 or more households reporting in each of two or more localities. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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$ This total includes households not given in the localities, because within a locality no race was tabulated unless 10 or more schedules were secured. Not computed, owing to small number involved.

The foregoing table shows that the average number of boarders or lodgers per household is much higher for practically all the races in Pennsylvania than in any other division. The South Italian households have an average number of boarders or lodgers of 4.15 in Pennsylvania and 4.07 in the South. The Magyar households have an average of 4.01 in Pennsylvania and 3.92 in the South. The North Italian households have an average of 3.92 in the Southwest, 3.49 in Pennsylvania, 2.91 in the South, and none in the Middle West.

SIZE OF APARTMENTS OCCUPIED,

The series of tables next presented gives data relative to the number of rooms in the apartments occupied.

The first of the tables shows for each race the per cent of households occupying apartments of each specified number of rooms.

48296o — VOL 6–1149

TABLE 77.Per cent of households occupying apartments of each specified number of rooms, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This tables includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals however, are for all

races.]

General nativity and

race of head of household.

Average Per cent of households occupying apartments of each speciTotal number

fied number of rooms. number

of rooms of house

per apartholds. ment.

1.

2 3. 4. 5. 6. 7 or more.

2.

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The table shows that among the employees in bituminous coal mining 4 rooms is the usual size of apartment. Of the 2,371 households studied, 43.7 per cent occupy 4-room apartments. The size ranking second is 3 rooms, 28.1 per cent of the households occupying apartments of that size. The 4-room apartment is more common than any other one type for each race except the native-born negroes, the Irish, and the Mexicans. Of the negro households, 59.3 per cent occupy 3-room apartments and 22.2 per cent 4-room apartments; of the Irish, 30 per cent occupy 3-room apartments, 24 per cent 4-room apartments, and 22 per cent 5-room apartments; of the Mexicans, 31 per cent occupy 2-room apartments, 52.4 per cent 3-room apartments, and 16.7 per cent 4-room apartments.

The Slovak race is represented by the largest number of households, 14.5 per cent of which occupy 2-room apartments, 22.9 per cent 3room apartments, 51.1 per cent 4-room apartments, 7.5 per cent 5-room apartments, 3.3 per cent 6-room apartments, and 0.7 per cent apartments of 7 or more rooms. Of the 334 Polish households, 0.9 per cent occupy 1-room apartments, 10.8 per cent 2-room apartments, 32.3 per cent 3-room apartments, 43.4 per cent 4-room apartments, 8.4 per cent 5-room apartments, 3.9 per cent 6-room apartments, and 0.3 per cent apartments of 7 rooms or over.

Six races report no households in apartments of as many as 7 rooms, but the whites native-born of native father, the Welsh, and the Irish have relatively large proportions thus housed. No negro or Russian households have more than 5 rooms, and no Mexican

household has more than 4. The South Italians, Russians, and Lithuanians have higher per cents of households with only 1 room than have the other races reporting.

The table which follows shows for each race the per cent of households occupying apartments of less than 4 rooms. The exhibit is by geographical divisions.

Table 78. Per cent of households occupying apartments of less than 4 rooms, by locality

and by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting in each of two or more localities. The

totals, however, are for all races.)

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. This total includes households not given in the localities, because within a locality no race was tabulated unless 10 or more schedules were secured.

Not computed, owing to small number involved.

The foregoing table shows great differences among the various coalproducing areas. Sixty-seven and six-tenths per

cent of the households in the Southwest, 46.8 per cent of those in the Middle West, 44 per cent of those in the South, and 26.5 per cent of those in Pennsylvania, occupy apartments of less than 4 rooms. The differences in the geographical divisions are marked for practically all of the races. The households whose heads are whites native-born of native father, are reported in three divisions; the per cent occupying apartments of less than 4 rooms is 45.3 in the Southwest, 18.2 in the Middle West, and 9 in Pennsylvania. The Poles have a very high percentage in each division except Pennsylvania. The per cent for this race is 91.3 in the Middle West, 83.4 in the Southwest, 68.1 in the South, and 21.7 in Pennsylvania.

The table next submitted shows the average number of rooms per apartment in each of the four geographical divisions.

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