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Italians, South Italians, and Lithuanians. The average rent per person reported by each of these three races, compared with the average rent per person reported by the whites native-born of native father, shows that the North Italians are 32.4 per cent less in the Middle West, 47.9 per cent less in Pennsylvania, and 29.1 per cent less in the Southwest; the South Italians are 45.6 per cent less in the Middle West, 59.4 per cent less in Pennsylvania, and 31.5 per cent less in the Southwest; and the Lithuanians are 48.8 per cent less in the Middle West, 43.2 per cent less in Pennsylvania, and 26.1 per cent less in the Southwest.

The following table shows the per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per apartment, by general nativity and race of head of household. TABLE 69.—Per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per apartment,

by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Of the households whose heads were foreign-born, the Mexicans, with 75 per cent, present the largest proportion paying less than $5 per month for their apartments. The Russians rank second, with 32.5 per cent. The Ruthenian, Croatian, and English households have the smallest per cents in this column. Of the households paying under $7.50, the Mexican still hold the lead, every household coming under this rate. The Russian follow with 95 per cent. The Slovak, Polish, North Italian, Croatian, South Italian, Magyar, German, Lithuanian, Ruthenian, and English households, follow in the order named. Of the households paying under $10, the Mexicans are followed closely by the Slovaks. If any criterion as to the relative standard of living may be taken from the above, it is obvious that the Mexican households have the lowest standard, while the races which belong to the old immigration from Great Britain and northern Europe have the highest.

The next table shows the per cent of households paying each specified monthly rent per room. The percentages are cumulative, or, in other words, the number under each rate includes the numbers under all lower rates.

TABLE 70.Per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per room, by

general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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This table shows that 36.1 per cent of the white households nativeborn of native father, pay under $2 per month per room, 93.4 per cent pay under $3, and 96.7 per cent pay under $4. The Russians have the highest percentage among those who pay under $2, their figure being 82.5; the Slovaks are second, with 79.7, and the Poles third, with 75.1. The lowest among the foreign-born is 42.5 for the Lithuanians, and the next is 55.3 for the North Italians. Only four races report households paying less than $1 per room, and only three races report households paying as much as $4. The Slovaks appear in both these groups.

The table next submitted shows the per cent of households paying each specified monthly rent per person. The percentages are cumulative.

TABLE 71.Per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per person, by

general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Of the 61 white households in the foregoing table the heads of which are of native birth, 4.9 per cent pay under $1 per person, 45.9 per

cent under $2, 72.1 per cent under $3, and 86.9 per cent under $4. The Russians and Mexicans show a very low rent per person. Of the Russians, 52.5 per cent pay under $1, 90 per cent pay under $2, 95 per cent pay under $3, and all households pay under $4.

The highest per cent paying under $1 per person is 55.6 for the Mexicans, the second 52.5 for the Russians, and the third 48.4 for the South Italians. Of the foreign-born races, the English have the lowest, 9.5 per cent, and the Germans the next, 25.7 per cent.

BOARDERS AND LODGERS.

The presence of boarders and lodgers in a household has a direct bearing on housing and living conditions. They affect not only congestion within the household, but also the family income and, in a greater or less degree, the family life.

Data relative to the number of households which keep boarders or lodgers, and the average number per household, are presented in the series of tables which immediately follows. The first table in the series shows for the entire industry the number and per cent of households which keep boarders or lodgers.

TABLE 72.- Number and per cent of households keeping boarders or lodgers, by general

nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (Information relating to boarders or lodgers covers only immediate time of taking schedule, and not

the entire year. Boarders are persons who receive both board and lodging.)

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Of the 2,371 households studied, 975, or 41.1 per cent, have boarders or lodgers. Of the races with 20 or more households reporting, the Welsh have the lowest per cent keeping boarders or lodgers. The households whose heads are whites native-born of native father rank next, and the native-born negroes third. On the other hand, the Ruthenians have the highest per cent which keep boarders or lodgers, and the Croatians the next to the highest.

The proportions keeping boarders or lodgers, of the households of the various races for which percentages have been computed, rank as

follows:

Ruthenian.
Croatian...
Russian...
Lithuanian.
Wagyar..
Polish.
South Italian.
Slovak.
North Italian.
Mexican...
English.

Per cent.

62. 8 60.6 57. 1 54. 7 53. 5 52. 1 51.5 38. 5 37. 7 21.4 14. 8

German..
Irish..
American negro.
American white.
Welsh.....

Per cent.

13. 7 6.0 3. 7 2.8 2. 6

From this exhibit it is seen that the per cent of households which keep boarders or lodgers is low among the English-speaking races and the Germans, and high among the races from southern and eastern Europe, the difference being quite marked between the races of the old and those of the new immigration.

The table next presented shows for each of the bituminous coalmining areas the per cent of households which keep boarders or lodgers.

TABLE 73.- Per cent of households keeping boarders or lodgers, by locality and by general

nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[Information relating to boarders or lodgers covers only immediate time of taking schedule, and not

the entire year. Boarders are persons who receive both board and lodging. The races included are only those with 20 or more households reporting in each of two or more localities. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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a This total includes households not given in the localities, because within a locality no race was tabulated unless 10 or more schedules w're secured.

o Not computed, owing to small number involved.

The differences among the geographical divisions, as can be readily seen from this table, are almost as great as the differences among the various races. Three races, the North Italian, South Italian, and Polish, are represented in each of the four bituminous areas. Of the North Italian households, none in the Middle West, 58.3 per cent in Pennsylvania, 44 per cent in the South, and 25 per cent in the Southwest keep boarders or lodgers. The per cent of the South Italian households which have boarders or lodgers is 12 in the Middle West, 71.9 in Pennsylvania, 59.2 in the South, and 25.7 in the Southwest. The Poles show 26.1 per cent of their households in the Middle West keeping boarders or lodgers, 55.1 per cent in Pennsylvania, 66.7 per cent in the South, and 30.6 per cent in the Southwest.

The preceding tables, showing the per cent of households which have boarders or lodgers, should be studied in connection with

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