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Discussion of the foregoing table is limited to the North Italian, South Italian, Lithuanian, and Polish races, represented in all of the four geographical groups, and to the whites native-born of native father and the foreign-born Slovaks, with percentages in three.

The whites native-born of native father, the Lithuanians and the Poles, each show that 100 per cent of the individuals tabulated from the Middle West worked six months or longer during the year studied, and the Lithuanians report the same figure in the Southwest. In no other locality do these races make so good a showing. In the South more than 95 per cent of the North Italians, South Italians, Lithuanians, and Poles, worked at least half the year. No percentage is given for the American whites in the South, as the number reporting is too small to be representative. In the Pennsylvania fields, the South Italians have 96.1 per cent, which is a higher proportion working six months or over than is shown in any other locality by this race. The Lithuanians, North Italians, and Poles in Pennsylvania, however, fall below the average shown by these races for the industry as a whole.

The best showing made by any of these six races in the bituminous coal fields is made by the South Italians, who show that 93.8 per cent of the total number worked six months or over. The Poles come next, with 93.3 per cent. The other races, following in the order of their percentages, are the Slovaks, Lithuanians, whites native-born of native father, and North Italians.

THE IMMIGRANT AND ORGANIZED LABOR.

The extent to which the employee of foreign birth is affiliated with labor organizations is largely a matter of local conditions of employment. The mines of the Middle West and Southwest are operated under an agreement between trade unions and operators and employment in the mines is conditional upon membership in the local unions. Only a few scattered mines in the South are unionized. The coke region in Pennsylvania is without labor organizations, and, outside of the Pittsburg mining district, with the exception of one or two communities, there is no collective bargaining between operators and employees. Statistics as to the affiliation of foreign-born employees with trade unions, therefore, do not admit of any satisfactory conclusions as to racial tendencies, and should be considered in the light of the foregoing explanation.

The table following shows the number and per cent of males 21 years of age or over in the households studied, who are affiliated with trade unions. The exhibit is by general nativity and race.

a For a detailed discussion of the immigrant employee as a unionist in Pennsylvania, se

pp. 330-334.

TABLE 62.-Affiliation with trade unions of males 21 years of age or over who are working for wages, by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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In the table above it is seen that of the white mine employees who are native-born of native father, 59.1 per cent are affiliated with labor organizations, as compared with 31.8 per cent of the total foreign-born. Among the immigrant races, the high proportion of the Mexicans, Welsh, North Italians, Lithuanians, and Irish affiliated with trade unions, as compared with other races, is apparent. This showing does not, however, indicate any relatively greater tendency on the part of the races mentioned to unite with organized labor, but is due to the fact that these races are more extensively employed in the Middle West and Southwest where organized labor controls the labor supply and membership in the union is a condition of employment. On the other hand, the larger proportions of the other races furnishing information are employed in the nonunion districts of Pennsylvania and the South. The general showing as to affiliation with labor organizations on the part of the immigrant workers, therefore, is largely affected by the relative proportions which are employed in different localities. The accuracy of this statement becomes manifest by a glance at the table on page 103, which shows the extent of affiliation with labor organizations, by race and by locality.

48296°—VOL 6-11-8

Per cent of males 21 years of age or over working for wages, who are affiliated with trade unions, by general nativity and race of individual.

[This chart shows only races with 100 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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TABLE 63.- Per cent of males 21 years of age or over working for wages, who are affiliated with trade unions, by locality and by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting in each of two or more localities. The

totals, however, are for all races.)

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* This total includes households not given in the localities, because within a locality no race was tabulated unless 10 or more schedules were secured. Noi computed, owing to small number involved.

Upon comparing the localities in the table above, it is seen that practically all of the mine workers of all the races in the Middle West and Southwest are affiliated with trade unions, while the proportions vary materially in Pennsylvania and the South. In the South a relatively large proportion of the North Italians, and in Pennsylvania a relatively large proportion of the Russians, Lithuanians, and North Italians are affiliated with labor organizations. In Pennsylvania this is due largely to the fact that the North Italians, Russians, and Lithuanians from whom information was received, were principally employed in unionized localities; also, in a large measure, to the fact that the North Italians and Lithuanians tend more extensively, as compared with other races, to identify themselves with labor organizations and to seek work in localities in which the unions are in control.

As regards the effect of period of residence upon the extent of affiliation with trade unions on the part of the immigrant mine employees, the table next presented is of value. It shows for members of the households studied, the number and proportion of those of the different races, according to period of residence in the United States, who are affiliated with trade unions.

TABLE 64.-Affiliation with trade unions of foreign-born males 21 years of age or over who

are working for wages, by years in the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only races with 50 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

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Of the total for all races in the above table, an increased proportion is seen to be affiliated with trade unions as the period of residence in the United States increases, 20.6 per cent of those who have been in the United States under five years, as compared with 38.3 per cent of those with a residence of from five to nine years and 38.7 per cent of those who have been in the country ten years or more, being affiliated with labor organizations. The general tendency exhibited by the totals is also apparent in the case of the several races, the proportions invariably increasing largely for the five to nine year period, and showing a still further increase, in the case of three of the races, for the period of ten years or more.

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