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the most expensive of the three methods, and the result depends largely on the skill of the engraver. Illustrations are also reproduced occasionally in color by lithography or by other different color processes which, by the combining of certain colors and tints, produce remarkable results.

In deciding the class of illustration to be used, an author will find it to his advantage to consult his publisher, and should be guided, in a great measure, by his advice. The printing of illustrations in the text of a book involves the using of special kinds of paper best suited to bringing out the finest impression that can be obtained from a cut. Engravers invariably print on a coated paper which has a high finish, with a very black ink, so as to bring out the lines with the sharpness and brilliancy of the original—a result that can not always be obtained from cuts made by the half-tone process. Notwithstanding this objection, the greater part of the illustrations printed in books and periodicals nowadays are produced by this process.

In considering the cost of the different processes for reproducing illustrations to be printed in black and white, the author should bear in mind that an illustration engraved on wood which costs one hundred dollars to produce can

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be made by half-tone process for ten dollars,

and by zincography for about four dollars. But all designs are not suited to the same process of reproduction, and here again the author will do well to heed his publisher's advice. Color: printing is much more costly, as each color requires a separate printing, whether it be done by lithographic or other process. Engraving on steel or copper, which seems to have passed out of popular favor for book illustrating, is now rarely used, except in the reproduction of portraits or of masterpieces of art. Photogravure, or the process of producing an intaglio plate for printing, and the gelatin process, in which a negative is made on a gelatin film which is used for printing or for making a relief printing-plate, have some vogue, but can be used only on papers of special make, and as a means for illustrating books are usually employed only where the picture is to occupy a full page and is to be set into the book by the binder as an inset. When a number of these have to be inserted in a book, the publisher furnishes his binder with a dummy showing the place of insertion for each inset illustration; this the binder must have before the different signatures of the book are collated for sewing and binding.

The cost of color-lithography, of the tri-,

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quadri-, and other color processes, of steel and copper engraving, of photogravure, and of reproduction by the gelatin process, is much greater than that of reproduction by zincography or half-tone process, but, excepting color= lithography and engraving on steel or copper, generally less than that charged for engraving on wood.

If an author wishes to guard against the copy-. ing, by unscrupulous persons, of the illustrations which embellish his book, it is necessary for him to secure a copyright upon them. The general copyright which an author or a publisher secures to protect the contents of a book, while it is understood to protect everything within the covers of that book, does not always do so, for some jurists hold that, according to the letter of the law, illustrations that are bound-in with a book do not constitute an integral part of that book, and that, therefore, if protection is required for same, each must be copyrighted separately. As a matter of fact, the law makes no provision for such cases, and is subject to the personal interpretation of the judges. This is a most unsatisfactory condition of affairs, and in view of it authors wishing to secure the contents of their works from piracy or plagiarism, in cases where separate illustrations, maps, or other designs or

devices are given in their books, should copyright each one separately, and print the fact that this has been done on each separate subject. For further information, see the chapter entitled “How to Secure a Copyright."

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CHOOSING A PUBLISHER THERE are several considerations of which an author must take cognizance before he makes arrangements for the publication of his manuscript. Above all things, he should take care to associate himself only with a reputable house, and beware of the many so-called publishing “companies with high-sounding names which are conducted by sharks, whose purpose is only to prey upon the unwary. He should avoid the mushroom firms—firms that spring up overnight, and blazon their way with pyrotechnic set-pieces of advertising, for which they pay a high price for the sake of impressing the public with their importance. Firms like these flash in the pan. They are not unlike a barrel of gunpowder to which a light has been set; they flash brilliantly, and for a little while make a great noise; then, when all is over, nothing remains but ashes and deathlike silence.

To find out the financial standing of a publish

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