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deems necessary, but effort is generally made to bring it to a close on a left-hand page, so that the list of contents (7) may begin on a right-hand page. The list of contents is followed next in order by a list of illustrations (8) if the book is illustrated ; by the text (9) or main body of the book; by the appendix (10), if there be necessity for one; and, finally, by the index (11)an indispensable pass-key to every good book.

Some authors, especially those who write on scientific subjects, find it necessary to print a list of the errata that they discover in their own work after it has been passed finally for the press. In such cases it is better that the errata should face the first page of the text of the book, and, if necessary, be printed on a separate fullsized sheet. Small inset slips should be avoided as likely to be torn out.

Authors will note that at the bottom of certain pages of printed matter-as, for example, every eighth, sixteenth, or thirty-second page-there is printed a symbol, which may be either a letter or number (numbers are most commonly used). This symbol designates a signature, or completed form, or sheet of a work, and serves as a guide to the pressman in imposing the book, to the folder, and to the collator in preparing the different sheets or signatures for the binder.

XIV

ILLUSTRATIONS

IN forwarding material to be used for illustrative purposes, whether it consists of photographs, drawings, paintings, etc., authors should exercise more than ordinary care in protecting them from all chances of damage and to keep them flat. As has already been pointed out (page 5), a complete list of the illustrations that are to be inserted in the text of a book should accompany the manuscript when this is despatched to the publisher. Instructions marked on the manuscript concerning the placing of these illustrations are useful only to indicate where they are to be put when the originals are supplied by the author. If the designs are to be made by the publisher's artists, duplicate proofs of these designs, when the cuts have been made, are usually sent to the author. The first should be pasted on the margin of the author's corrected galley-proof before he returns it to the printer, and a legend for each illustration should be supplied. Another but less satisfactory way of indicating the position of the illustrations is to number one set of the picture-proofs consecutively, and place numbers corresponding to them on the margins of the galley-proofs. These corresponding numbers must be set alongside of the paragraphs to which the illustrations respectively belong; but the first method is preferable, as eliminating the possibility of error on the part of the maker-up. The duplicate proof the author should hold for reference, or as a check on the printer, to see that his instructions to him have been carried out.

Care should be taken to designate whether illustrations are to be centered or set in toward either of the margins. Unless precautions are taken to indicate this clearly, the maker-up may place the cut on the wrong side of the page, or may use his discretion and place it where he thinks it fits best. The author should always þear in mind that the printer's only means of identifying an illustration is the impression of it which he supplies.

In placing illustrations that are to be printed with the text of a book, it is desirable to scatter them through the volume instead of grouping them together. Full-page illustrations should be so arranged as to be printed on recto pages, where they will be more easily seen. When a full

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page illustration is printed lengthwise, the picture should be turned outward in such manner that the legend relating to it appears on the outside margin, and not on the inner margin of the page, as was the practise formerly. If printed in this way not only is the illustration more easily seen but the legend is more easily read, and the binding of the book is not subjected to that backbreaking process which was necessary when pictures were turned inward, and their legends were printed on the inner margins.

The transposition of illustrations from one part of a book to another, or from one side of a page to another, is one of the most costly processes in the making up of type into pages, and sometimes causes the overrunning of a great deal of matter. This work is charged for as time-work, and in*volves heavy expense. Authors who desire to keep the cost of correcting their work down to a minimum should bear these facts constantly in mind.

No book that is to be illustrated can be made into pages until the blocks on which the illustrations have been engraved are supplied, and their respective places indicated on the galley-proofs. Sometimes it happens that, through unforeseen circumstances, the block of an illustration is delayed. In such cases, when neither the author nor the publisher wish to delay the making up of the pages, the exact size of the belated block is sent to the printer, who, if instructed to do so, can leave sufficient space in the page to allow for it and for its legend, to be set in later, and proceed with his work.

Every book that is illustrated should contain a list of the illustrations; this list usually follows the table of contents. To prevent mistakes, the list should be prepared from the plate-proofs of the book. It may be prepared in two ways: alphabetically (the plan usually followed with reference books), or in the order in which the illustrations occur--this being the plan usually adopted with general literature.

There are several methods by which illustrations can be reproduced. The three most popular, applied to illustrations to be printed in black and white, are the zinc etching, made from a drawing and etched on a zinc plate; the halftone illustration, which can be reproduced from a photograph, wash-drawing, etc., is etched by mechanical process, chiefly on copper, as this is productive of best results (half-tone work in newspaper offices is generally etched on zinc), and engraving on wood, a process by which the design required is either drawn or photographed on boxwood and engraved by hand. This is

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