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The points used are: the note of exclamation or ecphoneme (!); the note of interrogation or eroteme (?); the dash (-); the quotation-marks or guillemets, used singly or in pairs (“.

'), and the parentheses or curves—( ). 3. Etymological punctuation is used to indicate something concerning the formation, use, or omission of words or parts of words.

The marks used are: the caret (^); the dieresis ("); the macron or macrotone (), a mark of quantity used to designate length, as of vowel sound or syllable; the breve or stenotone (), a mark of quantity used to designate a close vowel sound or a short syllable ; the acute accent (), used to denote stress in pronunciation; the grave accent ( ), used to denote a falling inflection or an open or long vowel; the circumflex ), used to denote a broad or long sound; the hyphen (-, -), used to connect syllables of a word when separated, as at the end of a line or to connect the two elements (or more) of a compound word, and the period (.), used to denote an abbreviation.

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4. Punctuation for reference is used to refer the reader to some other place in the page or book.

The marks used are the asterisk or star (*); the dagger or obelisk (t); the double dagger or



diesis (I); the section ($); the parallel (D); the paragraph (T); the index (19"); and the asterism (*** or ***). In cases where the references are numerous these marks are sometimes doubled, but in such cases modern usage inclines to the use of superior figures (1 %), which are preferable, except in books which treat technical subjects, as in these superior, and sometimes inferior, figures (3, 2) are used for other purposes. Superior letters also are occasionally used (a,b). Ellipses, as in quotations, are usually designated by three periods or stars (. . .; ***). Brackets ([]) are used when the purpose is to separate sentences that have been interpolated as comments on remarks in parentheses.

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THE comma is used to mark the shortest pause of time.

(1) In a simple sentence it may be used or be omitted.


Know that the slender shrub which is seen to bend, conquers when it yields.

Truth is afoot, nothing can impede it.

The same principle leads us to neglect a man of merit that induces us to admire a fool. (2) In a compound sentence—that is, one in which the direct sequence of thought is interrupted by repetition or by the addition, as of verbs, nouns, or other parts of speech—the comma is used to separate the simple members.


Charity, like the sun, brightens every object

it shines upon.

Men of age object too much, consult too long, adventure too little, repent too soon, and seldom drive business home to the full period, but content themselves with a mediocrity of success.

(3) It is used in separating several (more than two) words which are connected by conjunctions expressed or implied.


Man must have some fears, hopes, and cares for the coming morrow.

God has given us wit, and flavor, and brightness, and laughter, and perfumes, to enliven the days of man's pilgrimage, and to charm his pained steps over the burning marle."

Gordon met death as a brave, valiant, and noble man. (4) It is not used to separate two words that are connected by a conjunction.

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EXAMPLE: Mirth is short and transient, cheerfulness fixed and permanent.

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(5) It may or may not be used to separate a series of words in pairs that are connected by conjunctions.


This sound brought out from their lurkings places a crew of vagabond boys and vagabond dogs, and boy and dog, and hostler and Boots, all slunk back again to their holes.


In schoolroom and college class, in the field
and afloat, discipline maintains order.

East and West and South and North
The Messengers ride fast.

(6) It is used to set off nouns and pronouns in the absolute, and words put in apposition,


The prisoner, his sentence being pronounced,
was removed.

He who stands before thee is Paul, the

The transaction closed, we separated.

(7) It is used to set off adjectives or participial adjectives and their adjuncts, especially if they affect the significance of a dependent clause.


is the

EXAMPLE: Man, living, feeling man, easy prey of the powerful present.

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(8) It is used to introduce a single short quotation. If, however, more than one quotation is cited, a colon should be used instead.

(9) It is used in the place of a verb omitted or of a word understood.

(10) It is used before and after the infinitive mode when the infinitive follows a verb from which it should be set off, or when it is dependent on a thing understood or remote.

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