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(1) That spelling and pronunciation which is sanctioned by local usage should in general be adopted.

(2) Where names have been changed or corrupted, and such changes or corruptions have become established by local usage, it is not in general advisable to attempt to restore the original form.

(3) In cases where what was evidently originally the same word appears with various spellings sanctioned by local usage, when applied to different features, these various spellings should be regarded as in effect different names, and, as a rule, it is inadvisable to attempt to produce uniformity.

[17 Clause 3, reproduced here, is taken verbatim from the Second Report of the U. S. Board on Geographic Names, p. 22.]

(4) Where a choice is offered between two or more names for the same place or locality, all sanctioned by local usage, that which is most appropriate and euphonious should be adopted.

(5) The possessive form should be avoided whenever it can be done without destroying the euphony of the name or changing its descriptive application.

(6) In names ending in 'burgh" the final "h" should be dropped.

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(7) Names ending in “borough” should be abbreviated to “ boro. (8) The word “

center, as a part of a name, should be spelled as above, and not "centre.'

(9) The use of hyphens in connecting parts of names should be discontinued.

(10) The letters "C. H.” (Court House) appended to the names of county seats should be omitted.

(11) In the case of names consisting of more than one word it is desirable to combine them into one word.

(12) It is desirable to avoid the use of diacritic characters.

(13) It is desirable to avoid the use of the words “ city” and “ town as parts of names.

2. The principles applied to the geographic names of foreign countries are :

(1) Geographic names in countries that use Roman characters should be rendered in the form adopted by the country having jurisdiction, except where there are English equivalents already fixed by usage. In cases where the English equivalent is so different from the local form that the identity of the latter with the former might not be recognized, the English form should be adopted, but both forms may be given.

(2) The spelling of geographic names that

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require transliteration into Roman characters should represent the principal sounds of the word as pronounced in the native tongue.

The spellings of the board have been adopted by the editor of the “ Standard Dictionary.

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CAPITALIZATION

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NO AUTHOR can afford to neglect this feature in his work. For this reason the following suggestions are offered for his guidance.

To indicate capital letters in a manuscript, draw three parallel lines beneath them. (For example, see section on PROOF-READING, page 59.)

The systematic application of the following rules will assure correct capitalization:

1. Capitalize the initial letter (1) of the first word of every complete sentence; (2) of the first word of every distinct clause separately paragraphed or numbered; (3) of every proper name; (4) of every word derived from a proper name; (5) of the first word and of the chief other words in the titles of books, pictures, plays, or publications; (6) of the first word and other chief words in subtitles or subdivisions of books written in two or more parts.

2. Capitalize all the names of the Deity—.g., the Almighty, Creator, Father, God, Jahveh, Jehovah, Savior.

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God is capitalized only when the word refers to the Deity; in its other senses it takes a small initial letter.

Heaven takes a capital initial when it denotes the Supreme Being and a small letter when used in any of its many other meanings. This may have been due to the influence of the Authorized Version of the Bible on printing. Therein the translators commonly used small letters. In Genesis 1:2, the word is written “heaven," but in the same chapter (verse 8) we find “ And God called the firmament Heaven”—the capital letter was used here to designate the sky and all the depth of space beyond the surface of the earth as distinguished from the abode of man.

3. Write the personal pronoun in the first person singular a capital-as, “Vengeance is mine, saith the Lord; I will repay.”

4. Capitalize the initial letter of words of special importance or others specifically applied, as the family names or type genuses of animal or of plant life.

5. Write the initial letter of the first word of every line of verse a capital—e.g.:

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“My love to those that I love;
My love to those that love me.
My love to those that love those that I love,
And to those that love those that love me.”

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