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(a) When the preceding vowel sound is long and

expressed by a single letter, as the following: baked, not bakt, as bakt gaped, not gapt

would be pronounced backed chafed, not chaft caked, not cakt

coped, not copt craped, not crapt

moped, not mopt draped, not drapt

roped, not ropt N.B.-The "e" does not affect the preceding vowel sound when expressed by two or more letters, as in booked (bookt), bleached (bleacht), crouched (croucht).

(6) When a preceding “C” has the sound of "S' as in chanced (not chanct), forced (not forct), faced (not fact), etc.

Rule 2 (1) Drop

ue at the end of words when the preceding vowel is short or a diphthong, as in dialogue, catalogue, etc. Thus, spell dialog, catalog, demagog, epilog, synagog, etc.

(2) Retain "ue" when the preceding single vowel is long, as in prorogue, vogue, disembogue, pirogue, plague, vague, fatigue.

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Rule 3

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(1) Drop final "e" from words ending in “ite” when the “i” is short, as hypocrit, op

i posit, preterit, requisit, etc.

(2) Retain final “e” when the “iis long, as in finite, polite, unite, etc.

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Rule 4

Drop final “te" in words like cigarette, coquette, quartette, etc. Thus, spell coquet, epaulet, quartet, and all words of the same class which are Anglicized.

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(1) Drop final “me” in words like programme, and spell program.

(2) Retain final “me” in written medical prescriptions, where the form gram might be mistaken for grain, and cause serious error.

Rule 6

(1) Drop final “e" from words ending in “ile” when the “i” is short, as in fragil(e, ductille, etc. (2) Retain final

" when the “i” is long, as in gentile, exile, etc.

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Rule 7

(1) Drop final "e" from words ending in “ine” when the "i" is short, as in disciplin(e, doctrin(e, feminin(e, etc.

(2) Retain final “e” when the “i” is long, as in sunshine, asinine, machine, etc.

Rule 8

(1) Drop final "e" from words ending in “ise” when the “i” is short, as in anis(e, practis(e, premis(e, treatis(e, etc.

(2) Retain final “ewhen the “i” is long, as in wise, etc.

Rule 9

Drop "a from "ea" having the short sound of “e” as in feather, leather, etc.

Rule 10

(1) Drop final "e" from words ending in

ve” when the preceding vowel has its common short sound, as in repulsiv(e, talkativ(e, etc., or is expressed by two letters, as in grieve, groov(e, carv(e, "r" counting with the vowels.

(2) Retain final "e" when the preceding vowel is single and long, as in five, drive, etc.

Rule II

Change the diagraph "ph” to “f” wherever it has the sound of “f,” as in diphtheria (diftheria), phantom (fantom), telegraph (telegraf), photograph (fotograf), physic (fysic), naphtha (naftha), etc.

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CHEMICAL TERMS The need of a reform in the spelling of chemical terms, which was generally admitted by the Section on Chemistry of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, led to the adoption by that body of certain rules affecting several classes of terms. These rules are as follows:

In terms ending in “-ide” drop the final "e”; write “chlorid,notchloride); “oxid,” not oxide” ; “sulfid,” not“ sulphide.”

In terms ending in “-ine," drop the final "e"; write “bromin," notbromine"; "chlorin," not" chlorine" ;"quinin," not "quinine."

EXCEPTION: The termination “-ine" is retained only in the case of unsaturated hydrocarbons, according to Hoffman's grouping. Thus, write “butine," not "butin"; "hexine,” not "hexin," etc.

In harmony with the action of the Association for the Advancement of Science, the “Standard Dictionary” substitutes “f” for “ph” in “sulfur" and all its derivatives, and it follows the spellings of the Association in its vocabulary.

GEOGRAPHIC NAMES The United States government has appointed a permanent Board on Geographic Names, whose duty is to determine all unsettled questions concerning such names that arise in the Departments,

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and in the Government Printing Office. The decisions of this Board are to be accepted as standard authority by these Departments. A complete list of these spellings can be obtained at small cost by applying to the Public Printer, Washington, D. C.

The plan followed by the Board in disposing of any question brought before it is to refer it to its Executive Committee. This committee is charged with the thorough investigation of the question, is expected to consult the authorities with regard to it, and to make use of such assistance as it may find available elsewhere. Officers of the various Departments of the United States government are under instruction to afford this Board such assistance as may be proper to carry on its work. A résumé of such investigations as are made, together with a recommendation based on the results, is submitted to the Board at a regular meeting, and after discussion a decision is reached by vote.

While some persons, chartographers especially, have taken exception to the decision of this Board as regards certain names, no other list can be recommended as a reliable substitute.

1. The principles applied by the Board to geographic names in the United States may be summarized as follows:

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