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ORTHOGRAPHY

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"THE orthography of our language," says Goold Brown,' “is attended with much uncertainty and perplexity; many words are variously spelled by the best scholars, and many others are not usually written according to the analogy of similar words." The international copyright law has worked a curious change in the orthography of some American books.

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Until lately American publishers used the shorter and simpler form of such words as armor, “honor," “labor," omitting the “u, common to English spelling; in words like “civilize, “utilize," etc., the American form “ize" displaced the British “ise.” Now, however, some American publishers have gone back to the old-fashioned forms so tenaciously cherished by the British. The reason for this is found in the fact that American books have invaded England.

No longer can American publishers be twitted with Sydney Smith's caustic query: “In the four quarters of the globe, who reads an American

1 The Institutes of English Grammar; p. 32.

book ?" The Briton no longer objects to reading it—in fact, he looks for it; but prefers the orthography so dear to his conservative heart. The result is that some publishers have deemed it necessary, in order to sell American books in England, to spell in the British way. On account of this the author, before he commences to write, should determine for himself the authority on spelling he intends to follow. Sometimes, however, the matter is left to the discretion of the publisher.

In recent years great strides have been made, especially in the United States, toward simplifying the spelling of words. Dr. I. K. Funk, in his magnum opus, the “Standard Dictionary," states that "in its effort to help in simplifying the spelling of words this dictionary is conservative, and yet aggressively positive along the lines of reform agreed upon almost unanimously by the leading philologists." So here is a work with the preponderance of scholarship in its favor that may be followed as a reliable guide in all matters of disputed spelling.

As has already been said, the modern tendency is toward the simplifying of orthography. To this end, the National Educational Association has recently adopted simplified forms for spelling certain words, but it has not yet followed the

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lead of progressive lexicographers who favor the dropping of all silent letters as redundant. The simpler forms of only twelve words have been adopted by the National Educational Association. These forms are :

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altho
catalog
decalog
demagog

pedagog
program
prolog
tho

thoro
thorofare
thru
thruout

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This advocacy is slowly bearing fruit, and will no doubt ultimately lead to reducing the language to a phonetic basis, which will materially assist students of orthography, and save both time and money.

The trend toward simplified spelling is noticeable in many American publications. Some publishers adopt special forms of words for their composing-rooms. This tendency has already spread to periodicals even of an educational character, and throughout the United States educators have manifested a keen interest in the subject, many advocating the adoption of simplified spellings in such words as offer least resistance, and in others whose forms in poetry have been simplified to meet the exigencies of rime.

There are few printing-offices or publishinghouses that do not establish a set of rules governing typography and orthography for the

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guidance of their compositors. The most comprehensive of these is, perhaps, that adopted by the Funk & Wagnalls Company, which is reproduced below.

TO EDITORS, TYPEWRITERS, COMPOSITORS, AND

PROOF-READERS

Please take notice that hereafter the following rules and spellings are to be used in all the publications of the Funk & Wagnalls Company:

1. The dieresis is to be omitted in all English words-as, zoology, cooperation, etc. In AngloGerman words—that is, German words not thoroughly naturalized in English speech and writing -the umlaut is to be retained.

2. The diphthong is to be omitted in all recognized English words-as, egis, fetus, instead of ægis, fætus.

SPELLINGS

eon

adz
altho
Antichrist
archeology
ах

coquet, v.
courtesy
cyclopedia
Czar
debonair
demagog
develop
diagram
dialog
domicil
driest
duet
envelop, v.

Haiti epaulet hectogram epigram Hongkong esthetic Kaffraria facet

ау.

beldam bequeath Bering Sea by and by catalog Chile chlorid

kilogram fetish

Kongo
Fiji

Korea
gelatin Kurdistan
good-by mold
gram

monogram gray

mustache guarantee, v. myth guaraniy, n. nowadays

omelet Punjab
parquet quartet
pasha quintet
phenix Rumelia
program Savior
prophecy, n. secrecy
prophesy, v. sextet

sheath
skepticism
smooth
stedfast
stockinet
Sudan
synagog

synonym
technic
tho
Tibet
unchristian
whisky
wreath

Of the various classes of words whose spelling is unsettled, that are affected by the movement for simplified spelling, with which an author should familiarize himself, several are given below, characterized as American and English,

American English American
abridgment abridgement bakshish
accessory accessary

banderole
accouter accoutre banian
accouterment accoutrement bastile
acknowledg- acknowledge-behavior
ment
ment

belabor
adz
adze

beveled
altho

although beveling
aluminum aluminium bichlorid
amphitheater amphitheatre bicolored
analyze analyse bombazine
anemia anæmia Brahman
anemic anæmic braize
anesthetic anæsthetic brocatel
anesthetize anæsthetize brusk
arbor

arbour
ardor

ardour cadaster
armor
armour

caffein
armory armoury

caliber
asafetida asafetida calif
ascendency ascendancy califate
atropin atropine cancelation
ax
axe

canceler
ay (forever) aye

candor

English baksheesh bannerol banyan bastille behaviour belabour bevelled bevelling bichloride bicoloured bombasine Brahmin braise brocatelle brusque

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cadastre caffeine calibre caliph caliphate cancellation canceller candour

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