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OT the least important of all materials

that have played an indirect part in bringing the titanic struggle "over

there" to a final and successful conclusion is paint.

Strange, but true, the average American never thinks of paint as a war necessity, or as having any direct relation to, or bearing on, war activities. Nevertheless, our essential industries have been driven at top speed in turning out material and equipment necessary to the maintenance of war and consuming vast amounts of wood and metal, which have to be painted. No other class of material has a greater diversity of uses, or enters into more phases of war production as an aid in making the prime instruments of warfare more efficient, durable and effective than does paint.

Perhaps the most vivid example is the use of paint for camouflage. This particular field covers troop trains, ordnance, motortrucks, tanks, roads and all types of ships.

In addition to being less conspicuous on the high seas, the lines of a camouflaged ship are so broken up that a submarine finds difficulty in locating its center, thus making a very uncertain target for the deadly torpedo. Paint in this instance is used as an aid in protecting both life and maritime property.

The camouflaging of troop trains, ordnance and motor trucks serves to make such objects less conspicuous to enemy observation.

Aerial photography is likewise hampered. Camouflaged objects are not distinguishable at high altitudes. Burlap or canvas camouflaged and spread the ground cannot be distinguished from the

landscape at an altitude of 1,000 feet, consequently it is necessary for enemy observers or photographers to fly at low altitudes in order successfully to conduct their operations, which brings them within easy range of anti-aircraft guns.

Uncle Sam's consumption of paint at the navy yards and shipbuilding plants is enormous. Every inch of wood and metal that enters into ship construction must be painted. Special types of paint are available for different surfaces according to their nature and the conditions they encounter in actual use. Hulls must be painted with special paints to protect them from the salt water, and more especially is this true of metal hulls, where corrosion from the salt water would soon render them unseaworthy. The marine line includes paints and varnishes for hulls, decks, cabins, inside woodwork, machinery and smoke stacks or fun. nels, all of which represent a highly special. ized branch of the paint industry.

These materials are not used merely for decorative purposes.

Such surfaces must be protected and made as impervious to severe exposure as possible, permitting use for the longest period without repair or replacement.

One of the most highly sensitized instruments of modern warfare is the flying machine, every constructive detail of which is based on the most unerring accuracy. Paint specialties find many uses here.

Propeller blades, made of a certain wood, must be very smooth in order to re. duce wind resistance to a minimum. Wood filler and special varnish gives the right surface, and one that also protects them from moisture and dampness.

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All wood used in aeroplane construction has to be specially finished. Even the wings are coated to make them tougher and more durable. While the quantity of material consumed in this branch of the military organization is small compared with others, yet its use is important and necessary in giving stability and durability to parts which are subject to severe strain and exposure.

As cleanliness and sanitation are the watch dogs of camp life and essential to healthy and vigorous manhood, paint has done its part in providing sanitary and washable surfaces that stand for the highest ideals of cleanliness. Hardly a limit can be placed on the number of smaller, but equally important uses of paint, varnish, enamel, lacquer, stain, filler and shellac for war purposes.

Floating mines are covered with baking japan in order to present rust and corrosion. Assurance of the performance of their duty at the right moment depends in a large degree on this protection.

Varnishes and lacquers are used on shell cases to protect them from corrosion and insure a smooth-fitting surface to gun breeches. This protection is needed, not only in transportation overseas, but on the battlefields.

Ammunition wagons, gun carriages and all rolling stock used on the field are paint. ed. Ammunition boxes are protected from moisture and dampness with paint coatings. Gunstocks require special finishing material to make them resistant to mud, water, heat, cold and other conditions encountered in service.

Field tents and tarpaulins are all coat. ed to make them waterproof and durable.

So in this vast war program we find hardly a single object but what requires the use of paint, either in whole or part. Large paint manufacturers have been called upon to supply these abnormal quantities of paint materials for Government use and supply them in undue haste. Certain raw materials have been hard to get, among them lead and zinc, which are prime pig. ments entering into a great variety of paint products.

Railroad transportation has been slow and uncertain. Labor has been scarce. Packages have been difficult to obtain due to the necessity of packing foodstuffs in tin containers for shipment abroad-and yet Uncle Sam has had to have the goods and have them quickly.

All these conditions the manufacturer has had to overcome, and in the face of an unprecedented demand. Certain of the important manufacturers with exceptional facilities have surmounted all these obstacles to a remarkable degree and met the emergency.

Uncle Sam is not only a liberal purchaser of paints, but an exacting one as well. All his requirements are based on formulae which have been developed by the governmental staff of technical experts, covering paints, varnishes and enamels for all types of work. These formulae are used as a standard in soliciting bids, and all material must

up to Government specifications in order to be acceptable.

measure

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as

ALLOVER DESIGN. A pattern that covers

the surface evenly without any particular

feature standing our prominently. APPLIQUE. An outline usually in metallic

bronze or flitter applied to a border after

printing BINDERS. Narrow borders. BLOCK-PRINTED. The same

handblocked. BORDERS. Bands of ornament in wall-pa

per ranging in depth from wide top-borders or figures to narrow decorations only

a few inches in width. CAEN STONE. An imitation of the surface

of a wall of rectangular blocks of Caen stone separated by narrow mortar joints.

CREPE. A paper that has a crinkled sur

face like a crepe fabric. CROWN. A top-border made in sections

across the width of the wall-paper instead

of in a continuous roll. CROWN-HANGINGS. Paper-hangings that

are printed with a section of crown border, crosswise of the strip, at intervals,

also known as strip-crowns. CUT-OUTS. Borders or other decorations

that are cut out along the outline of the

design. DENIM EFFECTS. Papers in textile effect,

primarily those having the appearance of denim, but commonly used to designate

JUURVILOMAILUT

Waterproof

HILO

a great variety of fabric effects, such as

burlap weaves, etc. DOUBLE PROCESS PAPERS. Papers in the manufacture of which two runs of the machine are involved, the colors being allowed to dry between the first and second runs. Usually applied to fabric effect papers that have an over-print, produced by the second run of the machine. DUPLEX INGRAINS. Ingrain papers that

have a back of plain paper. DUPLEX OATMEAL. An oatmeal paper

that has a back of plain paper. EGGSHELL. A hard, slightly glossy suface

finish on wall-paper resembling in appearance the surface of an eggshell. EMBOSSED BRONZES. Papers in which

the portions of the design that are in gold or bronze are embossed or surrounded by embossing that conforms to the shape of

the gold portions. ENGRAVED PAPERS. Those printed from engraved cylinders in contradistinction to

surface-printed papers. FABRIC EFFECT. Any paper that imitates the texture of a woven material.

Triproof Spar for inside and outside work. Pale, easyworking, quick-drying. Proof against ammonia and alcohol. Never turns white. Test it-panel sent free upon request.

Hilo Varnish Corporation
Brooklyn, N. Y.

Chicago, m. Pacific Coast Distributors-The Brininstool Co.,

Los Angeles, Cal.

FIBERS. Papers in which flecks of fibrous

substance are incorporated during the manufacture of the stock.

FLATS. Wall-papers printed on white stock,

grounded, do not contain gold, mica or

any glittering substance. FLITTER. A lustrous, metallic material in

flakes. FLOCKS. Papers that have the surface

partly or entirely covered with wool-powder or silk-powder which is known as flock. In the manufacture of ficck papers, the surface of the paper is coated with an adhesive substance or size and the flock powder is dusted on and allowed to settle in the sizing to which it adheres. Frequently a pattern is formed by printing with sizing and allowing the flock powder to adhere to this size. There are plain flocks, raised flocks and pressed flocks. The latter are made by stamping a pattern on a plain flock paper with a dieblock, which embosses the design permanently. Flock papers are also known as velvet papers, because of their resem:

blance to this fabrie. FLORALS. Papers that show a design of

flowers of natural appearance, not conven

tionalized. FRIEZE. A decorative treatment for the

upper wall. May be pictorial, conventional or of naturalistic ornament.

GOLD THREAD. An overprint consisting

of horizontal lines in a bronze to give the appearance of a metallic thread in the

weave of a fabric effect wall-paper. GRASS-CLOTH EFFECTS. Papers that im

itate the appearance of Japanese grasscloths, also those that imitate any similar

grass weave. HAND-BLOCKS. Printed from flat blocks

by hand in contradistinction to machine

printed. HAND-BP.USHED. Stencilled by hand with

a brush. HAND PRINTS. Papers printed by hand in

contradistinction to machine-printed papers. They are printed from flat blocks, pressed down on the paper while it lies on a work table. A separate block is used for each color and the paper is dried

between printings. COMBINATION. A set consisting of a side

wall paper, or hanging, with border and

ceiling designed to be used together. ILLUMINATED LEATHERS. Papers that

have the appearance of leather decorated by the application of metal leaf and ornamented with hand stamps and color glazing in imitation of old Spanish dec

orated leathers. INDEPENDENT. A paper for covering the

side-wall that does not have a border to

match. Same as independent hanging. INGRAIN. A paper that is tinted in the pulp

and is characterized by short wavy black lines formed by bits of hair or wool mixed

in the pulp. INK-EMBOSSING. A fabric weave effect

produced by passing the wall-paper under an engraved roller which embosses it in imitation of the texture of cloth and at the same time carries color into the depressions of the embossing.

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JASPES. Papers that show a textile effect

of fine irregular, vertical lines; similar

to jaspe fabrics. LANDSCAPE PAPERS. Papers the pattern

of which shows a landscape. Usually the scene is formed of strips with a design of sufficient height to reach from the base to the cornice. Sometimes applied to papers in the pattern of which a small land

scape vista appears at intervals. LEATHERS. Reproductions of leather,

either plain or ornamental, in wall-paper. LIQUID GILTS. Papers upon which a por

tion of the pattern has been printed in bronze liquid, applied in the same manner

as the colors. MOIRE. Papers that have a pattern like

moire, watered silk, characterized by wavy lines. Moire ceilings are usually printed

in mica on a white ground. MOTIF. A distinct ornamental feature of

a design, sometimes intended to be cut out and applied to ornament otherwise

plain panels. OIL TONES. Papers in oil color effects. OVERPRINT. Printing to produce a fabric

or other effect over the colors of the de

sign. PANEL BORDERS. Narrow bands of orna

ment to be used in dividing a wall surface

into panels. PRESSED PAPERS. Stamped with a hot,

flat die-plate in contradistinction to embossed papers, which are made by emboss

ing rollers. PULP OATMEAL. A paper in which flecks

of fiber resembling sawdust are mingled with the pulp in the process of making the stock. These fibers may be seen in the

surface. PULP-TINT. Ungrounded papers printed

on stock that has been colored by mixing dye into the pulp during the making of

the paper stock. RAW STOCK. The paper used in printing

wall-paper. SEMI-PLAIN. A paper in a small, incon

spicuous allover pattern. SHADOW PRINT. A wall-paper in which

the effect of a damask or cut velvet hay. ing a raised pattern is produced by printing a design that contains distinct shadows and high lights giving the effect of

relief. SOIRETTE. Commonly employed to desig

nate the same kind of paper as that usually known as Tekko, but more correctly applied to satin, silk or damask effects when produced by the use of mica,

STIPPLE. Any paper that produces an

effect similar to stippling with a brush in

paint work. STRAPS. Narrow borders. SURF CE RINTED PA RS. Those that

are printed from rollers that have a raised design on the surface, formed of brass

outlines filled in with felt. VISTA. A distance effect, particularly a

small landscape framed in foliage or

scrolls. WARP-PRINT. A paper the design of

which has the appearance of a warp-print fabric. The peculiar appearance of a warpprint in fabric is due to the fact that the pattern is printed in colors on the warp before weaving. When the threads of the weft are woven in, this tones down the pattern and partly obscures it. In the weaving, the warp threads slip somewhat out of the position they occupy during the printing and this tends to give a degree of irregularity. It is this effect that is

imitated in the warp-print wall-paper. WEAVE. See fabric effect. WHITE BLANKS. Wall-papers made

white stock, grounded, no gold or bronze in the printing, but usually contain some mica, which appears in the parts of the design that would be printed in gold or

bronze in a “gold." TONE-AND-TONE. A wall-paper, the pat

tern of which is all in tones of one color.

Solid color. TWO-TONE Papers. Strictly papers that

show only two tones of one color printed from a single block or roller upon a ground of the same color as the color of the pattern, the design being in a tone either lighter or darker than the ground, but this term is commonly applied to any paper, the pattern of which is in various tones of one color. Patterns that contain many tones are commonly called two-tone

papers if there is only one color. UNGROUNDED. Without the ground color,

the pattern being printed directly on the

raw material. VARNISH BRONZES. Papers in which the

metallic portion of the design is produced by printing in a varnish. A bronze powder is dusted on and adheres to the wet var. nish.

Gold bronze is made of copper, zinc and tin and will tarnish under exposure.

The blue and cloudy look on varnished surfaces is often caused by smoke from bituminous coal.

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48.05

3.00

159

160

2.80

35.40 161 10.20

1.90 162

4.30

53.60 164 76.90

166 126.80

17.70

167 14.40

3.00 168 4.50

3.40 169 36.60

42.20 170 16.40

26.10 171 2.90

172 69.10

19.60 173 11.80

14.00 174

16.80 175 10.90

49.00 177

19.80 178 13.50

28.10 179 15.00

9.10 180 370.85

5.80 181 27.80

4.30 183 15.80

2.20 184 275.60

7.00 186 204.50

8.00 187 45.60

11.30

188 38.30

15.70 190 124.90

11.60 191 121.60

4.80

25.00 21.70 272 5.10

5.90 273 102.10

2.80

274 8.10

7.30

276 9.60

4.85

277 55.80

1.00 4.40 278

5.00 280 22.40

121.70 281 16.20

6.50 7.10 282 31.30

4.60

283

12.40

85.10 285 13.10

1.00 66.90

286 18.00

56.20 290 9.80

12.10 291 6.60

292 6.60

11.75 26.80 293 13.80

4.20

398 17.00

399 20.30

400 4.50

401 14.60

9.50

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