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TABLE 1.—Growth of the cigar and tobacco industry for the United States and selected States, 1880-1905-Continued.

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It appears from the above table that since 1880 there has been a large increase in the volume of the cigar and tobacco industry in the United States. This increase has occurred in the number of active establishments, in the capital invested, and in the total value of products. In 1905 there were in the country, as a whole, 16,395 active establishments, as compared with 14,539 in 1900, 10,956 in 1890, and only 7,145 in 1880. The increase in the capital invested and in the total value of products has been considerably greater, relatively, than the increase in the number of establishments. The figures for the several States show the same general increase that is shown by the figures for the United States. In a number of States, however, the capital invested and the value of products was greater in 1890 than in 1900. This is notably true in the case of North Carolina. There has been, in most of the States for which the returns are given in the table, a greater relative increase in the capital invested and in the value of products than in the number of active establishments.

INCREASE IN THE NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES.

The increase in the working force of the cigar and tobacco industry in the United States and in the several States in which the original investigation was carried on is shown by the figures published in the United States censuses of manufactures. The table following shows the number of men, women, and children employed in the industry in the census years 1880, 1890, 1900, and 1905.

TABLE 2.-Increase in the number of employees in the cigar and tobacco industry for the United States and selected States, 1880-1905.

[All computations made from "Tobacco, cigars, and cigarettes" in special reports on manufactures in the respective censuses.]

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From the foregoing table it appears that since 1880 there has bee a very considerable increase in the number of workers employed in th cigar and tobacco industry of the United States. There were in 190 135,418 employees in all the cigar and tobacco establishments of th United States, as compared with 103,462 in 1900, 98,156 in 1890, an 53,297 in 1880. The number of children under 16 years of ag employed was smaller in 1890 than in 1880 and smaller still in 1900 but the figures for 1905 show an increase over those of all three preceding censuses. Since 1880 there has been a steady increase in the number of men and women employed in the industry. It will be noted that the increase in the number of women employed has been relatively much greater than the increase in the number of men employed. The figures for the several States for which data are included in the table show the same general tendency as is shown by the figures for the country as a whole. In almost every State the total number of employees increased considerably between 1880 and 1905. It will be noted, however, that in a number of States, notably North Carolina and New York, the total number of persons employed was larger in 1890 than in 1900. In most of the States there has been a greater relative increase in the number of women employed than in the number of men employed. In other words, the proportion of female employees was considerably larger in most of the States, as well as the country as a whole, in 1905 than in 1880. The increase in the number of children under 16 years of age employed in the industry has been relatively small in most of the States and in New York there has been a marked decrease.

THE TERRITORY STUDIED.

Information was obtained for the employees of cigar and tobacco establishments in all parts of the country east of the Rocky Mountains. In the Middle West the establishments included in the investigation were located in Ohio, Illinois, Wisconsin, and Missouri; in the East, in the States of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and New York; and in the South, in Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, Maryland, North Carolina, Louisiana, and Florida. Tampa, Fla., was studied in detail, complete returns having been secured for 60 cigar factories in that city. The study of households was confined to Tampa, Fla. Descriptive and historical matter was collected from establishments and communities in the East, Middle West, and South.

HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The table next presented shows the households studied, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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