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The preceding table shows for each race a rapid advancement in acquiring the use of the English language according to period of residence in the United States.

The table next presented shows, by age at time of coming to the United States and race, the percentage of foreign-born male employees who speak English.

TABLE 72.—Per cent of foreign-born male employees who speak English, by age at time of coming to the United States and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 100 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all non-English-speaking races.]

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That the age of immigrants at time of coming to the United States has a marked effect on their ability to speak English is clearly shown in the preceding table, by the fact that the proportions who were under 14 years of age at time of coming and who now speak English range from 100 per cent of the Lithuanians to 93.5 per cent of the Poles, while the proportion of the Lithuanians, who were 14 years of age or over who speak English, is 27.6 per cent, and for the Poles 29.5 per cent.

The table next presented shows, by years in the United States and race, the percentage of foreign-born male employees who speak English.

TABLE 73.-Per cent of foreign-born male employees who speak English, by years in the United States and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 100 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all nonEnglish-speaking races.]

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It is seen from the preceding table that the proportion of foreignborn males who speak English increases with length of residence in the United States. The German shows the largest and the Russian the smallest proportion of those who have been in the United States under five years, as well as of those with a period of residence of from five to nine years, while the Polish show the smallest proportion, with a period of residence of ten years or over, who speak English.

GENERAL TABLES.

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GENERAL EXPLANATION OF TABLES.

Persons of native birth have been divided into two general groups and further subdivided under each of the two, as follows:

1. Native-born of native father.

Persons under this group are classified as White, Negro, Indian, Chinese, Hindu, Japanese, and Korean.

2. Native-born of foreign father.

Persons under this group are further classified according to race of father in all tables where the data were secured for households, and according to country of birth of father in all tables where the data were secured for employees. Where classification is by race of father the classification used for several years by the United States Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization is followed.

Persons of foreign birth are classified according to race (or people). The classification of the United States Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization is followed.

In the study of households information is presented

1. By general nativity and race of the "individual" in all tables which show facts which are personal in their nature, such as English speaking, occupation, or conjugal condition.

2. By general nativity and race of "head of family" in tables concerned with family matters; for example, family income.

3. By general nativity and race of "head of household" in all tables dealing with living conditions, among which are tables showing the composition of the household and the number of persons per room and per sleeping room. The distinction which has been made throughout this study between "family" and "household" is dependent upon the use of the term "apartment."

An "apartment" is a room or rooms within which all the usual daily processes of living-namely, cooking, eating, and sleeping—are carried on by the occupants. According to this definition an apartment may be, for example, a whole house, or it may be a single room of what was originally intended as an apartment, or it may be a corner of a wareroom or the back of a storeroom partitioned off and set aside for household uses. Two or more groups of occupants with distinctly separate money interests frequently rent a number of rooms jointly, occupying certain rooms separately but sharing one or more, usually the kitchen, or kitchen and living room. Under these conditions neither the rooms used by the one group of occupants nor those used by the other can be considered an apartment, since the room used in common must in such case be considered a room in each apartment and thus be counted twice. Where these conditions have been encountered the entire number of rooms has been considered one apartment.

The "household" includes all persons living within an apartment without regard to the relationships which exist among them. The

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