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History of immigration-Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born employees and members of their households-Racial classification of employees at the present time [Text Tables 8 to 14 and General Tables 4 and 5].
HISTORY OF IMMIGRATION.
Data showing in detail the history of immigration to the sugarrefining industry is, unfortunately, unavailable. The returns of the United States Bureau of the Census show, however, the general racial composition of the working force employed in the industry, for certain censuses and for certain areas.
From the census figures it is possible to determine, in a general way, the movement of immigration to the industry.
The following table classifies the employees of the sugar-refining industry in the country as a whole in 1880, according to country of birth:
TABLE 8.-Number of sugar-refining workers in the United States, by country of birth, 1880.
The census for 1880 fails to give the figures by States. In the country as a whole there were at the date of the census 2,313 persons employed in the sugar-refining industry. Of these, 644 were nativeborn. Persons born in Germany had by far the largest representation among the foreign-born employees, with natives of Ireland in second place. Persons of British, Scandinavian, and Canadian birth were present in smaller numbers, and 227 workers were reported under the caption "Other countries.' It is clear, from the table, that in 1880 the proportion of southern and eastern European labor employed in the industry must have been very small.
In the following table the employees of the industry in 1890 are classified according to general nativity and country of birth:
TABLE 9.-Number of sugar-refining workers in the United States, by general nativity and country of birth, 1890.
In the census of 1890, as in that which preceded it, data are given for the United States as a whole, but not for the several States. It will be noted that the classification is somewhat more complete, native-born white employees being classified according to general nativity of parents. There were, in 1890, 2,616 sugar-refining employees in the United States. Of these 325 were native whites of native parents, 351 were native whites of foreign parents, 1,872 were foreign-born whites, and 68 were colored persons of unspecified nativity. Among the foreign-born employees, persons of German nativity had by far the largest representation. The Irish occupied second and natives of Sweden and Norway third place, while there were a number of persons of British, Canadian, and Danish birth and 367 persons born in countries not specified. At this census, as at the census of 1880, the proportion of employees of southern and eastern European race was clearly very small.
The next table presented is compiled from the returns of the census of 1900.
TABLE 10.-Number of sugar-refining workers in New York and Pennsylvania, by general nativity and country of birth of parents, 1900.
[Compiled from United States census: Occupations.]
The foregoing table differs in several respects from the two which preceded it. In the first place, data are not available for the country as a whole, but are available for the two States of New York and Pennsylvania. There is also a difference in the classification. Instead of classifying foreign-born employees by country of birth, as did the censuses of 1880 and 1890, the census of 1900 classifies all employees by general nativity and by country of birth of parents. There were, in 1900, 593 sugar-refining employees in New York and 221 in Pennsylvania. In New York 38 employees were native whites of native parents, 61 were native whites of foreign parents, and 494 were foreign-born whites, while in Pennsylvania 22 employees were native whites of native parents, 23 were native whites of foreign parents and 172 were foreign-born whites. There were 4 colored employees in Pennsylvania, but none in New York. As in the two preceding censuses, the foreign-born employees greatly outnumbered the native-born employees. This was true in both of the States for which the data are presented. Among employees having one or both parents born abroad, both in New York and Pennsylvania, persons of German parentage had the largest representation, while persons of Polish, Irish, and Russian parentage occupied, in the order mentioned, second, third, and fourth places.
It appears from the foregoing series of tables that workers of the races of recent immigration began to enter the sugar-refining industry at some time between 1890 and 1900. At all periods for which information is given the proportion of employees of the German race is very large.
The racial movements to the industry may be more clearly exhibited by a detailed account of the history of employment of the races of recent and past immigration in representative sugar-refining centers. With this object in view, the following brief account of the history of immigration to the refineries in Philadelphia and Boston is submitted:
In 1866 several small sugar refineries employing a number of Germans, Irish, and Americans were operated in Philadelphia. The Germans were skilled workmen, whereas the Irish and Americans were found chiefly in the unskilled occupations. Beginning about 1885, Poles were employed in the refineries, displacing the Germans and Irish, who either rose in the scale of occupations or entered other industries. At the present time all of the unskilled work is performed by Poles and a few Slovaks and Magyars who have entered the refineries during the last few years. On the docks and in the warehouses, conducted in connection with the industry, about 40 per cent of the total number of employees are Poles, 35 per cent Irish, and 25 per cent negroes.
When the sugar-refining industry began to assume some importance in Boston, about 1850, a demand was created for skilled sugar workers. This demand was supplied by German workmen who came to operate
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the refineries. Some came direct from Germany and others from London and Bristol, England. Up to the civil war the skilled laborers in the industry were practically all Germans. Immigration on the part of the Germans seems to have continued for only a few years and then ceased almost entirely. In the decade, 1850 to 1860, a few Irish were employed on the docks of the sugar-refining company and during the following year were gradually taken into the factory as vacancies occurred. From 1870 to 1875 probably half of the employees were Irish. During the above mentioned period the maximum number of Irish were employed in the industry; after a time the number of Irish employees began to decrease, and by 1880 to 1885 few or none were coming into it.
About 1875 a few immigrants from Nova Scotia applied for work and were employed. They continued to come in for a few years, never in large numbers, but sufficient to constitute a noticeable element in the working force. These immigrants were chiefly of Scotch ancestry, with a small proportion of Irish among them. In 1879 a few Italians both from northern and southern Italy were employed on the docks. Later a few were tried in factory work, but proved unsatisfactory. A few are still employed on the wharves, but practically none inside the factory. Simultaneously with the Italians a few Portuguese and immigrants from the Azores and Canary Islands were employed, but like the Italians either proved unsatisfactory or could not endure the work and soon dropped out. About 1885 some Armenians were tried, but proved failures and soon left the refineries. Since that date none have been employed. In 1884 Polish and Lithuanian immigrants began to apply for work on the docks. Many were employed, and soon some were taken into the factory and proved very satisfactory. More came and have continued coming until the present time, (1909). The Germans were not all displaced. Part of the Irish were taken on to supply additional workers required by the expansion of the industry. Canadian workers also played a similar part on a smaller scale, affecting both Irish and Germans. During the past twenty years the Germans, Irish, and Canadians have been leaving the refinery to take up lighter or better paid work, and their places have been filled with Poles and Lithuanians. This change is still going on, and eventually seems likely to put the Germans and Irish out of all but the higher positions. Immigrants were employed entirely upon personal application. They landed at the port of Boston and came to the refinery seeking work of any kind. They were employed as needed, and informed their relatives and friends when vacancies occurred and secured them positions.
PERIOD OF RESIDENCE IN THE UNITED STATES OF FOREIGN-BORN EMPLOYEES AND MEMBERS OF THEIR HOUSEHOLDS.
An insight into the racial movements to the industry may also be had from the following series of tables, which show the period of residence in the United States of foreign-born employees and members of their households. Length of residence in this country and period of employment in the industry are not necessarily identical, but they approximate each other sufficiently to indicate the character of recent and past immigration to the sugar refineries. The first