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IMMIGRANTS IN INDUSTRIES.

SUGAR REFINING.

This report, which was prepared under the direction of the Commission by W. Jett Lauck, superintendent of agents, forms part of the general report of the Immigration Commission on immigrants in industries.

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Members of households for whom detailed information was secured.
Employees for whom information was secured..............

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CHAPTER II.-Racial displacements:

History of immigration....

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Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born employees and members of their households.....

620

Racial classification of employees at the present time CHAPTER III.-Economic status:

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Industrial condition abroad of members of immigrant households studied...
Principal occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United
States...

General occupation of males at the present time in the households studied..
General occupation of women at the present time in the households studied.
Weekly earnings..

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Relation between period of residence and earning ability.
Annual earnings of male heads of families studied..

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Annual earnings of males 18 years of age or over in the households studied..
Annual earnings of females 18 years of age or over in the households studied.
Annual family income..

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Wives at work...

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Relation between the earnings of husbands and the practice of wives of keeping boarders or lodgers....

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Age classification of employees and members of their households.

CHAPTER VII.-General progress and assimilation:

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THE SUGAR REFINING INDUSTRY.

CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTION.

The growth of the industry-Households studied-Members of households for whom detailed information was secured-Employees for whom information was secured[Text Tables 1 to 7 and General Tables 1 to 3].

THE GROWTH OF THE INDUSTRY.

The study of the sugar-refining industry was limited to the refineries of the eastern States engaged in the manufacture of sugar from sugar cane. During the past forty years the industry in this section has undergone a rapid growth, as may be readily seen from the table below, which sets forth the expansion of the industry in New York, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and in the United States as a whole during the period 1880 to 1905.

TABLE 1.-Growth of the sugar-refining industry in the United States and in each specified State, 1880 to 1905.

[Compiled from United States census reports, 1880 to 1905.]

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The expansion in the operating forces of the sugar refineries in New York, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and the United States as a whole during the twenty-five years, 1880-1905, is shown in the table next presented.

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TABLE 2.-Number of employees in sugar refineries in the United States and in each specified State, 1880 to 1905.

[Compiled from United States census reports, 1880 to 1905.]

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A total of 194 households, the heads of which were employed in the industry, were studied in detail. The following table shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the households studied:

TABLE 3.—Households studied, by general nativity and race of head of household. (STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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Classified according to race of head, 54.6 per cent, or more than one-half, of the households studied were Polish, 31.4 per cent were Lithuanian, and 13.9 per cent were German.

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