Lapas attēli
PDF
ePub

TABLE 136.-General occupation of females 16 years of age or over, by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

[blocks in formation]

Of the 159 females for whom information was obtained in this industry, by far the largest proportion, or 73.6 per cent, are at home. With the exception of 0.6 per cent at school and an equal proportion otherwise employed, the remaining proportion, or 25.2 per cent, is in the cigar and tobacco industry. The proportion of foreign-born in the cigar and tobacco industry is identical with that shown in the total, while the proportions at home, at school, and otherwise employed are almost identical. The South Italians, it will be noted, show a slightly larger proportion than the Spaniards or Cubans in the cigar and tobacco industry, and a slightly smaller proportion at home-the Spaniards and Cubans, in each instance, following the same tendency as shown in the total. None of the Cubans or Spaniards, and only 1.9 per cent of the South Italians, are at school.

OCCUPATIONS ENTERED IN THE CIGAR INDUSTRY.

It has been suggested that tradition gives the Cuban preeminence in skill and speed as a cigar maker.

The truth appears to be that while the Cuban may possibly have the advantage in point of skill, they lack stability and power to adapt themselves to innovations. As competition grows keener, the manufacturer exercises greater care in his methods and demands stricter economy in the use of material. Foremen are carefully guarding against wasteful habits to an extent never known in the early days of the industry, and although the Cuban acquired his reputation when methods were comparatively lax, he looks upon suggestions to use more care as reflections upon his skill, and does not seem to understand that in the new era he must submit to the restrictions that govern his fellow-workmen or yield his place to such as will. Instead of meeting the competition of other races with closer application and a keener use of his ability, he yields to an unreasoning pride, and so loses the only hope of survival in the present struggle.

48296°-VOL 15-11-14

It was formerly the custom to employ the aged in the manufacture of the inferior grade of cigars, leaving the higher grades to those who retained their cunning. In this way the Cubans were assured of employment long after their early skill had diminished. Now, however, the cheap cigars are made by Italians, by women, and by the less skillful of the young men. In addition to the difficulty under which they secure and retain their places, the Cubans are now burdened with the care of their old, and are confronted with the certainty of finding themselves equally dependent in the course of a few years. It is now the common opinion of the leaders, as well as of the bulk of the Cubans themselves, that for them the future in the cigar industry holds little promise. As Tampa is gradually attracting the large manufacturers from other sections of the country as well as from Cuba, opportunities for obtaining work in their occupation are growing less outside of Tampa, while the constant increase of Spanish and Italian labor promises to shut them out more and more from the local establishments.

The Spaniards continue to profit by the custom established in Cuba of employing them in the more desirable positions. While the island was a colony the government as well as the industries were in the hands of the dominant race. This was especially true of the cigar industry. Whether because of an inherent contempt of the native or for some other reason, it remains true that the manufacturers, who were Spaniards, chose the managers, a majority of the foremen, the selectors, and the pickers and packers from among their own group. In the factories owned by Spaniards in Tampa this rule is still adhered to almost absolutely. Even in other factories the managers are most often found to be Spaniards. Furthermore, it may be said that in every factory of any importance, with the exception of three, the selectors and pickers and packers are all of this race. At least it is wholly true that men of other races are excluded from the selectors and pickers and packers' unions. That they have come to outnumber the cigar makers of any other race is due to an entirely different cause. It has been indicated that the bulk of the colony is composed of unmarried men. As such they depend on restaurants and boarding houses. These resorts are owned by the managers and manufacturers. Consequently an applicant's success in securing employment as a cigar maker hinges first on whether or not he is available as a lodger or a boarder. It is this condition that has made the Spaniards such formidable rivals of the Cubans and the only successful competitor of the Italian cigar

makers.

The Italian refugees in Tampa from New Orleans were compelled to turn to the cigar factories for employment, where their welcome proved anything but cordial. The unions, in fact, refused to accept them as apprentices. Nevertheless they accepted the rougher jobs, always with an eye on the main chance, and for the next few years did the janitor work, swept the floors, carried water, tended doors, handled the bales of tobacco, and loaded and unloaded wagons. spite of every opposition a few learned to make cigars, and these in turn taught their friends and relatives. It is said that most of this instruction was given at home each night with material that had been quietly appropriated during the course of the day's work.

In

Their opportunity at last came in the strike which resulted in the deportation of its leaders. Italians took the strikers' places and proved that they could fill them. Once having gained a foothold, they were determined to remain. When the bitterness engendered by the strike was allayed and there was danger that the Cubans and others would return and oust them from their places, the Italians bought their places by bribing the foremen. The next step was to send for relatives and friends. To-day the number of Italians in the cigar factories is between eight and nine thousand.

The activity of the Italians in other lines of work is greater than that of the Cubans or Spaniards. In the first place they have acquired nearly all of the property in certain sections of the city, principally in Ybor City and along Michigan avenue. The bulk of this property is made up of individual holdings. Owing to a highly developed clan spirit, it has been possible for them to support, without the aid of outside patronage, a number of wholesale and retail groceries, dairies, notion stores, dry goods stores, barber shops, bakeries, and saloons. The Italians also practically monopolize the street trades of Tampa, as is shown by the following statement:

[blocks in formation]

• Two such licenses issued, but only one Italian actually engaged in the occupation.

The number of Italians who gain their livelihood in the street trades, as is shown in the above statement, is greatly in excess of those of all other races. One hundred and two licenses were issued in October of 1909 for the term of one year to Italian peddlers. The custom of procuring licenses for shorter periods is confined chiefly to Americans and other races. Fifty-six licenses were issued to fish, fruit, and vegetable peddlers, 26 to milk venders, 11 to ice venders, 3 to icecream venders, 3 for the right to exhibit performing bears, and 1 each to a peanut vender, a scissors grinder, and an umbrella mender.

THE WAGE SCALE.

Employment in cigar factories may be divided broadly into two groups, the salaried positions and piecework. In addition to the executive and clerical forces, the selectors and pickers and packers are included in the first or salaried group. The selectors receive from $23 to $30 and the pickers and packers from $20 to $27 per week. In the second group is included the bulk of the employees. Of these the cigar makers form the largest and best-paid division. Cigars are valued according to grade from $8 to $45 per thousand. On this basis the amount earned ranges from $7 to $35 per week. It is true that there are a few grades of cigars that are worth much more than the above maximum, and also that there are cigar makers who earn more than $35 per week, but it will be found that these figures cover the vast majority of cases. Strippers and stemmers earn from $4 to $8 and banders from $4 to $12 per week. The following table sets forth the prices paid the cigar makers per 1,000 cigars, by classes and sizes:

[graphic][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][merged small][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][merged small][subsumed][merged small][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][merged small][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][merged small][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][merged small][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][merged small][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][merged small][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][merged small][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][merged small][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][merged small][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][merged small][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][merged small][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][merged small][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][merged small][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][merged small][merged small]

The average amount and range in amount of daily earnings of employees are set forth in the following series of tables, the first of which shows, by general nativity and race, the percentage of male employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified amount per day.

TABLE 137.-Per cent of male employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified amount per day, by general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

*

[This table includes only races with 80 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

[blocks in formation]

This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shut downs or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

The preceding table shows that of 6,222 male employees 18 years of age or over 99.2 per cent earn $1 or over per day, 96.2 per cent earn $1.25 or over per day, 94.8 per cent earn $1.50 or over per day, 84.2 per cent earn $1.75 or over, 80.7 per cent earn $2 or over, 45.9 per cent $2.50 or over, 24.3 per cent $3 or over, and 9.6 per cent $3.50 or over per day. The male employees who are native whites born of native father show the highest percentage earning $1 or over per day, the foreign-born and the native-born of foreign father following in the order named in somewhat smaller proportions. The male employees who are native whites born of native father also show the highest percentage earning $1.25 or over per day, followed by the native-born of foreign father and the foreign-born employees. The native white employees born of native father show the highest percentage earning $1.50 or over, $1.75 or over, $2 or over, $2.50 or over, and $3 or over per day, followed in the order named by the native-born of foreign father and the foreign-born. Employees who are native-born of foreign father show the highest percentage earning $3.50 or over per day, followed by the native whites born of native father and the foreign-born. Of the foreign-born employees the Cubans show the highest percentage earning $1 or over, $1.25 or over, $1.50 or over, and $1.75 or over per day, followed in the order named by the Spanish and the South Italian employees. The Spanish employees show the highest percentage earning $2 or over, $2.50 or over, $3 or over, and $3.50 or over per day, followed in the order named by the Cuban and the South Italian employees.

The table next presented shows, by general nativity and race, the percentage of female employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified amount per day.

« iepriekšējāTurpināt »