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employees show from 21.6 per cent to 43.6 per cent who can speak English. The employees who are of each specified race show a considerably higher per cent of males than of females who can speak English.

The table next presented makes possible a comparison of the relative proportion of the younger and older immigrants able to speak English. It shows, by sex, age at time of coming to the United States, and race, the percentage of foreign-born employees who were able to speak English:

TABLE 66.—Per cent of foreign-born employees who speak English, by sex, age at time of coming to the United States, and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 200 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all non-English-speaking races.]

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The preceding table shows that of 2,496 foreign-born employees, 50.6 per cent speak English. Of those who were under 14 years of age at the time of coming to the United States, 92.6 per cent speak English, and of those who were 14 years of age or over at the time of arrival, 40.5 per cent speak English. The table further shows that 68.5 per cent of the South Italians, slightly less than 60 per cent of the Russians, over 40 per cent of the Poles, over 30 per cent of the Greeks, and 21.6 per cent of the Magyars can speak English. Of the employees who were under 14 years of age at the time of coming

to the United States, the South Italians show the highest percentage and the Magyar employees the lowest percentage who can speak English. Of the foreign-born employees who were 14 years of age or over at the time of coming to the United States, the South Italians show 58.4 per cent as contrasted with only 15.6 per cent of the Magyar employees who can speak English. Of all employees regardless of age at the time of coming a considerably higher percentage of the males than of the females speak English.

The following table shows, by sex, years in the United States, and race, the percentage of foreign-born employees who were able to speak English, indicating the advancement manifested by cigar and tobacco manufacturing employees of foreign birth and non-Englishspeaking races in acquiring an ability to speak the language after designated periods of residence in this country:

TABLE 67.-Per cent of foregin-born employees who speak English, by sex, years in the United States, and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 200 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all nonEnglish-speaking races.]

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The preceding table shows that of 2,496 foreign-born employees reporting complete data, 50.6 per cent can speak English. Of those who have been in the United States under five years, 31.7 per cent can speak English, of those with a residence of from five to nine

years, 80.1 per cent can speak English and of the foreign-born employees who have been in this country ten years or over, 95.3 per cent can speak English. Of the foreign-born employees who have been in the United States under five years, the South Italians show by far the highest percentage and the Magyar employees the lowest per cent who can speak English. Of those with a residence of from five to nine years, the South Italians show the highest percentage and the Poles the lowest percentage who can speak English. Of those who have been in this country ten years or over, 100 per cent of the Magyars and 86.5 per cent of the Poles can speak English, each of the other specified races showing 90 per cent or over who have this ability. In the total, irrespective of length or residence in the United States, the South Italians show the highest percentage, followed by the Russians, the Poles, the Greeks, and the Magyars, in the order named, in considerably smaller proportions. Of the employees who have been in the United States under five years, ten years or over, and in the total, irrespective of length of residence, the male employees show a higher percentage than the female employees who can speak English. In the group, including persons who have been in the United States from five to nine years, the female employees show a higher percentage than the male employees who can speak English.

PART III. THE CIGAR AND TOBACCO MANUFACTURING

INDUSTRY IN THE MIDDLE WEST.

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