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tion, or as supplementary work, if the parties expressly agree in writ
ing that the work shall be considered a work made for hire. 102. Subject matter of copyright: In general
Copyright protection subsists, in accordance with this title, in original works of authorship fixed in any tangible medium of expression, now known or later developed, from which they can be perceived, reproduced, or otherwise communicated, either directly or with the aid of a machine or device. Works of authorship include the following categories :
(1) literary works;
(7) sound recordings.
(a) The subject matter of copyright as specified by section 102 includes compilations and derivative works, but protection for a work employing pre-existing material in which copyright subsists does not extend to any part of the work in which such material has been used unlawfully.
(b) The copyright in a compilation or derivative work extends only to the material contributed by the author of such work, as distinguished from the pre-existing material employed in the work, and does not imply any exclusive right in the pre-existing material. The copyright in such work is independent of, and does not affect or enlarge the scope, duration, ownership, or subsistence of any copyright protection in the pre-existing material. $ 104. Subject matter of copyright: National origin
(a) UNPUBLISHED WORKS.—The works specified by sections 102 and 103, while unpublished, are subject to protection under this title without regard to the nationality or domicile of the author.
(b) PUBLISHED WORKS.-The works specified by sections 102 and 103, when published, are subject to protection under this title if-
(1) on the date of first publication, one or more of the authors is a national or domiciliary of the United States, or is a national, domiciliary, or sovereign authority of a foreign nation that is a party to a copyright treaty to which the United States is also a party; or
(2) the work is first published in the United States or in a foreign nation that, on the date of first publication, is a party to the Universal Copyright Convention of 1952; or
(3) the work is first published by the United Nations or any of its specialized agencies, or by the Organization of American States; or
(4) the work comes within the scope of a Presidential proclamation. Whenever he finds it to be in the national interest, the President may in his discretion extend, by proclamation, protection under this title to works of which one or more of the authors is, on the date of first publication, a national, domiciliary, or sovereign authority of any designated foreign nation, or which are first published in any designated foreign nation, and he may revise, suspend, or revoke any proclamation or impose any con
ditions or limitations on protection under a proclamation. 105. Subject matter of copyright: United States Government works
(a) Copyright protection under this title is not available for any work of the United States Government, but the United States Government is not precluded from receiving and holding copyright transferred to it by assignment, bequest, or otherwise.
(b) A "work of the United States Government” is a work perpared by an officer or employee of the United States Government within the scope of his official duties or employment. 8 106. Exclusive rights in copyrighted works
(a) GENERAL SCOPE OF COPYRIGHT.-Subject to sections 107 through 114, the owner of copyright under this title has the exclusive rights to do and to authorize any of the following:
(1) to reproduce the copyrighted work in copies or phonorecords ;
(3) to distribute copies or phonorecords of the copyrighted work to the public by sale or other transfer of ownership, or by rental, lease, or lending;
(4) in the case of literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, and motion pictures, to perform the copyrighted work publicly ;
(5) in the case of literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, and pictorial, graphic, or sculptural works, to exhibit the copy
righted work publicly. (b) DEFINITIONS OF CERTAIN EXCLUSIVE RIGHTS.
(1) To “perform" a work means to recite, render, play, dance, or act it, either directly or by means of any device or process or, in the case of a motion picture, to show its images or to make the sounds accompanying it audible.
(2) To "exhibit” a work means to show a copy of it, either directly or by means of motion picture films, slides, television images, or any other device or process. (3) To perform or exhibit a work "publicly" means:
(A) to perform or exhibit it at a place open to the public or at any place where a substantial number of persons outside of a normal circle of family and social acquaintances is gathered ;
(B) to transmit or otherwise communicate a performance or exhibi
tion of the work to the public by means of any device or process. 107. Limitations on exclusive rights: Fair use
Notwithstanding the provisions of section 106, the fair use of a copyrighted work is not an infringement of copyright. & 108. Limitations on exclusive rights: Effect of transfer of particular copy or
phonorecord (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of section 106(a)(3), the owner of a particular copy or plonorecord lawfully made under this title, or any person authorized by him, is entitled, without the authority of the copyright owner, to sell or otherwise dispose of the possession of that copy or phonorecord.
(b) Notwithstanding the provisions of section 106(a)(5), the owner of a particular copy lawfully made under this title, or any person authorized by him, is entitled, without the authority of the copyright owner, to exhibit that copy publicly to viewers present at the place where the copy is located.
(c) The privileges prescribed by subsections (a) and (b) do not, unless authorized by the copyright owner, extend to any person who has acquired possession of the copy or phonorecord from the copyright owner, by rental, lease, loan, or otherwise, without acquiring ownership of it. 8 109. Limitations on exclusive rights: Exemption of certain performances and
exhibitions Notwithstanding the provisions of section 106, the following are not infringements of copyright:
(1) performance or exhibition of a work by instructors or pupils in the course of face-to-face teaching activities in a classroom or similar place normally devoted to instruction;
(2) performance of a nondramatic literary or musical work, or exhibition of a work, by or in the course of a transmission, if the transmission is made primarily for reception in classrooms or similar places normally devoted to instruction and is a regular part of the systematic instructional activities of a nonprofit educational institution;
(3) performance of a nondramatic literary or musical work or of a dramatico-musical work, or exhibition of a work, in the course of services at a place of worship or other religious assembly;
(4) performance of a nondramatic literary or musical work, otherwise than in a transmission to the public, without any purpose of direct or indirect commercial advantage and without payment of any fee or other compensation for the performance to any of its performers, promoters, or organizers, if:
(A) there is no direct or indirect admission charge, or
(B) the proceeds, after deducting the reasonable costs of producing the performance, are used exclusively for educational, religious, or charitable purposes and not for private financial gain; (5) the further transmitting to the public of a transmission embodying a performance or exhibition of a work, if the further transmission is made without altering or adding to the content of the original transmission, without any purpose of direct or indirect commercial advantage, and without charge to the recipients of the further transmission;
(6) the further transmitting of a transmission embodying a performance or exhibition of a work by relaying it to the private rooms of a hotel or other public establishment through a system of loudspeakers or other devices in such rooms, unless the person responsible for relaying the transmission or the operator of the establishment:
(A) alters or adds to the content of the transmission; or
(B) makes a separate charge to the occupants of the private rooms directly to see or hear the transmission; (7) communication of a transmission embodying a performance or exhibition of a work by the public reception of the transmission on a single receiving apparatus of a kind commonly used in private homes, unless :
(A) a direct charge is made to see or hear the transmissions; or
(B) the transmission thus received is further transmitted to the
public. § 110. Limitations on exclusive rights: Ephemeral recordings
Notwithstanding the provisions of section 106, it is not an infringement of copyright for an organization lawfully entitled to transmit a performance or exhibition of a copyrighted work to the public to make no more than one copy or phonorecord of the work solely for purposes of the organization's own lawful transmissions or for archival preservation, if the copy or phonorecord is not used for transmission after six months from the date it was first made, and is thereafter destroyed or preserved for archival purposes only. $111. Scope of exclusive rights in pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works
(a) Subject to the provisions of clauses (1) and (2) of this subsection, the exclusive right to reproduce a copyrighted pictorial, graphic, or sculptural work in copies under section 106 includes the right to reproduce the work in or on any kind of article, whether useful or otherwise.
(1) This title does not afford, to the owner of copyright in a work that portrays a useful article as such, any greater rights with respect to the making, distribution, or exhibition of the useful article so portrayed than those afforded to such copyrighted works under the law in effect on December 31, 1966.
(2) In the case of a work lawfully reproduced in useful articles that have been offered for sale or other distribution to the public, copyright does not include any right to prevent the making, distribution, or exhibition of pictures or photographs of such articles in connection with advertisements or commentaries relating to the distribution or exhibition of such articles, or in
connection with news reports. (b) A "useful article" is an article having an intrinsic utilitarian function that is not merely to portray the appearance of the article or to convey information. An article that is normally a part of a useful article is considered a "useful article." $ 112. Scope of the exclusive rights in sound recordings
(a) The exclusive rights of the owner of copyright in a sound recording are limited to the rights specified by clauses (1) and (3) of section 106(a), and do not include any right of performance under section 106(a) (4).
(b) The exclusive right of the owner of copyright in a sound recording to reproduce it under section 106(a) (1) is limited to the right to duplicate the sound recording in the form of phonorecords that directly or indirectly recapture the actual sounds fixed in the recording. This right does not extend to the making or duplication of another sound recording that is an independent fixation of other sounds, even though such sounds imitate or simulate those in the copyrighted sound recording.
(c) This section does not limit or impair the exclusive right to perform publicly, by means of a phonorecord, any of the works specified by section 106 (a) (4). § 113. Scope of exclusive rights in nondramatic musical works: Compulsory
license for making and distributing phonorecords In the case of nondramatic musical works, the exclusive rights provided by clauses (1) and (3) of section 106(a), to make and to distribute phonorecords of
such works, are subject to compulsory licensing under the conditions specified by this section. (a) AVAILABILITY AND SCOPE OF COMPULSORY LICENSE.
(1) When phonorecords of a nondramatic musical work have been distributed to the public under the authority of the copyright owner, any other person may, by complying with the provisions of this section, obtain a com. plusory license to make and distribute phonorecords of the work. A person may obtain a compulsory license only if his primary purpose in making phonorecords is to distribute them to the public for private use.
(2) A compulsory license includes the privilege of making a musical arrangement of the work to the extent necessary to conform it to the style or manner of interpretation of the performance involved, but the arrangement shall not change the basic melody or fundamental character of the work, and shall not be subject to protection as a derivative work under this
title, except with the express consent of the copyright owner. (b) NOTICE OF INTENTION TO OBTAIN COMPULSORY LICENSE.
(1) Any person who wishes to obtain a compulsory license under this section shall, before or within thirty days after making, and before distributing any phonorecords of the work, serve notice of his intention to do so on the copyright owner. If the registration or other public records of the Copyright Office do not identify the copyright owner and include an address at which notice can be served on him, it shall be sufficient to file the notice of intention in the Copyright Office. The notice shall comply, in form, content, and manner of service, with requirements that the Register of Copyrights shall prescribe by regulation.
(2) Failure to serve or file the notice as required in clause (1) forecloses the possibility of a compulsory license and, in the absence of a negotiated license, renders the making and distribution of phonorecords fully actionable
as acts of infringement under section 501. (c) ROYALTY PAYABLE UNDER COMPULSORY LICENSE.—
(1) To be entitled to receive royalties under a compulsory license, the copyright owner must be identified in the registration or other public records of the Copyright Office. The owner is entitled to royalties for phonorecords made after he is so identified but he is not entitled to recover for any phonorecords previously made.
(2) Except as provided by clause (1), the royalty under a compulsory license shall be payable for every phonorecord made in accordance with the license. With respect to each work embodied in the phonorecord, the royalty shall be either three cents, or one cent per minute of playing time or fraction thereof, whichever amount is larger.
(3) Royalty payments shall be made quarterly, in January, April, July, and October, and shall include all royalties for the three months next preceding. Each quarterly payment shall be accompanied by a detailed statement of account which, upon written demand by the copyright owner, shall be certified as correct by a certified public accountant licensed to practice in the United States.
(4) If the copyright owner does not receive the quarterly payment and statement of account when due, he may give written notice to the licensee that, unless the default is remedied within thirty days from the date of the notice, the compulsory license will be automatically terminated. Such termination renders the making and distribution of all phonorecords, for which the royalty had not been paid, fully actionable as acts of infringement under
section 501. $ 114. Scope of exclusive rights in nondramatic musical works: Performance by
means of coin-operated machine The proprietor of an establishment in which a copyrighted nondramatic musical work is performed publicly by means of a coin-operated machine is not an infringer unless :
(1) alone or jointly with others he owns the machine or has power to exercise primary control over it; or
(2) he refuses or fails, promptly after receipt by registered or certified mail of a request by the copyright owner, to make full disclosure of the identity of the person who owns the machine or has power to exercise primary control over it.
CHAPTER 2-COPYRIGHT OWNERSHIP AND TRANSFER Sec. 201, Ownership of copyright. 202. Ownership of copyright as distinct from ownership of material object. 203. Termination of transfers and licenses granted by the author. 204, Execution of transfers of copyright ownership. 205. Recordation of transfers and other documents. 8 201. Ownership of copyright
(a) INITIAL OWNERSHIP.-Copyright in a work protected under this title vests initially in the author or authors of the work. The authors of a joint work are co-owners of copyright in the work.
(b) WORKS MADE FOR HIRE.—In the case of a work made for hire, the em. ployer or other person for whom the work was prepared is considered the author for purposes of this title, and, unless the parties have expressly agreed otherwise, owns all of the rights comprised in the copyright.
(c) CONTRIBUTIONS TO COLLECTIVE WORKS.-Copyright in each separate contribution to a collective work is distinct from copyright in the collective work as a whole, and vests initially in the author of the contribution. In the absence of an express transfer of the copyright or of any rights under it, the owner of copyright in the collective work is presumed to have acquired only the privilege of reproducing and distributing the contribution as part of that particular collective work, any revision of that collective work, and any later collective work in the same series. (d) TRANSFER OF OWNERSHIP.
(1) The ownership of a copyright may be transferred in whole or in part by any means of conveyance or by operation of law, and may be bequeathed by will or pass as personal property by the applicable laws of intestate succession.
(2) Any of the exclusive rights comprised in a copyright, including any subdivision of any of the rights specified by section 106, may be transferred as provided by clause (1) and owned separately. The owner of any particular exclusive right is entitled, to the extent of that right, to all of the
protection and remedies accorded to the copyright owner by this title. 8 202. Ownership of copyright as distinct from ownership of material object
Ownership of a copyright, or of any of the exclusive rights under a copyright, is distinct from ownership of any material object in which the work is embodied. Transfer of ownership of any material object, including the copy or phonorecord in which the work is first fixed, does not of itself convey any exclusive rights in the copyrighted work embodied in the object; nor, in the absence of an agreement, does transfer of ownership of a copyright or of any exclusive rights under a copyright convey property rights in any material object. 8 203. Termination of transfers and licenses granted by the author
(a) CONDITIONS FOR TERMINATION.—In the case of any work other than a work made for hire, the exclusive or nonexclusive grant of a transfer or license of copyright or of any right under a copyright, executed by the author on or after January 1, 1967, otherwise than by will, is subject to termination under the following conditions :
(1) Termination of the grant may be effected by the author who executed it. If the author is dead, termination may be effected by his widow (or her widower) and children; the children of any dead child of the author succeed to the right of their parent for this purpose.
(2) Termination of the grant may be effected at any time during a period of five years beginning at the end of 35 years from the date of execution of the grant; or, if the grant covers the right of first publication of the work, the period begins at the end of 35 years from the date of first publication of the work or at the end of 40 years from the date of execution of the grant, whichever term ends earlier.
(3) The termination shall be effected by serving an advance notice in writing, signed by the author or, if he is dead, by all of those entitled to terminate his grant under clause (1) of this subsection, or by their duly authorized agents, upon the grantee or his successor in title.
(A) The notice shall state the effective date of the termination, which shall fall within the five-year period specified by clause (2) of this sub