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$ 408. Application for registration
The application for copyright registration shall be made on a form prescribed by the Register of Copyrights and shall include:
(1) the name and address of the copyright claimant;
(2) in the case of a work other than an anonymous or pseudonymous work, the name and nationality or domicile of the author or authors and, if one or more of the authors is dead, the date of their deaths;
(3) if the work is anonymous or pseudonymous, the nationality or domicile of the author or authors;
(4) in the case of a work made for hire, a statement to this effect;
(5) if the copyright claimant is not the author, a brief statement of how the claimant obtained ownership of the copyright;
(6) the title of the work, together with any previous or alternative titles under which the work can be identified ;
(7) the year in which creation of the work was completed ;
(8) if the work has been published, the date and nation of its first publication;
(9) in the case of a compilation or derivative work, an identification of any pre-existing work or works that it is based on or incorporates, and a brief, general statement of the additional material covered by the copy. right claim being registered ; and
(10) any other information regarded by the Register of Copyrights as bearing upon the preparation or identification of the work or the existence,
ownership, or duration of the copyright. 8 409. Registration of claim and issuance of certificate
(a) When, after examination, the Register of Copyrights determines that, in accordance with the provisions of this title, the material deposited constitutes copyrightable subject matter and that the other legal and formal requirements of this title have been met, he shall register the claim and issue to the applicant a certificate of registration under the seal of the Copyright Office. The certificate shall contain the information given in the application, together with the number and effective date of the registration.
(b) In any case in which the Register of Copyrights determines that, in accordance with the provisions of this title, the material deposited does not constitute copyrightable subject matter or that the claim is invalid for any other reason, he shall refuse registration and shall notify the applicant in writing of the reasons for his action.
(c) In any judicial proceedings the certificate of a registration made before or within five years after first publication of the work shall constitute prima facie evidence of the validity of the copyright and of the facts stated in the certificate. The evidentiary weights to be accorded the certificate of a registration made thereafter shall be within the discretion of the court.
(d) The effective date of a copyright registration is the day on which an application, deposit, and fee, which are later determined by the Register of Copyrights or by a court of competent jurisdiction to be acceptable for registration, have all been received in the Copyright Office. 8410. Registration as prerequisite to infringement suit
No action for infringement of the copyright in any work shall be instituted until registration of the copyright claim has been made in accordance with this title. In any case, however, where the deposit, application, and fee required for registration have been delivered to the Copyright Office in proper form and registration has been refused, the applicant is entitled to institute an action for infringement if notice thereof, with a copy of the complaint, is served on the Register of Copyrights. The Register may, at his option, become a party to the action with respect to the issue of registrability of the copyright claim by entering his appearance within sixty days after such service, but his failure to do so shall not deprive the court of jurisdiction to determine that issue. 8 411. Registration as prerequisite to certain remedies for infringement
In any action under this title, no award of statutory damages or of attorney's fees, as provided by sections 504 and 505, shall be made for:
(1) any infringement of copyright in an unpublished work commenced before the effective date of its registration; or
(2) any infringement of copyright commenced after first publication of the work and before the effective date of its registration, unless such registration is made within three months after its first publication.
CHAPTER 5-COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENT AND REMEDIES Sec. 501. Infringement of copyright. 502. Remedies for infringement: injunctions. 503. Remedies for infringement : impounding and disposition of infringing articles. 504. Remedies for infringement; damages and profits. 505. Remedies for infringement: costs and attorney's fees. 506. Criminal offenses. 507. Limitations on actions. 508. Notification of filing and determination of actions. $501. Infringement of copyright
(a) Anyone who violates any of the exclusive rights of the copyright owner as provided by sections 106 through 114, or who imports copies or phonorecords into the United States in violation of section 602, is an infringer of the copyright.
(b) The legal or beneficial owner of an exclusive right under a copyright is entitled, subject to the requirements of sections 205(d) and 410, to institute an action for any infringement of that particular right committed while he is the owner of it. The court may require him to serve written notice of the action with a copy of the complaint upon any person shown, by the records of the Copyright Office or otherwise, to have or claim an interest in the copyright, and shall require that such notice be served upon any person whose interest is likely to be affected by a decision in the case. The court may require the joinder, and shall permit the intervention, of any person having or claiming an interest in the copyright. $502. Remedies for infringement: Injunctions
(a) Any court having jurisdiction of a civil action arising under this title may, subject to the provisions of section 404 (b) of this title and of section 1498 of title 28, grant temporary and final injunctions on such terms as it may deem reasonable to prevent or restrain infringement of a copyright.
(b) Any such injunction may be served anywhere in the United States on the person enjoined; it shall be operative throughout the United States and shall be enforceable, by proceedings in contempt or otherwise, by any United States court having jurisdiction of that person. The clerk of the court granting the injunction shall, when requested by any other court in which enforcement of the injunction is sought, transmit promptly to the other court a certified copy of all the papers in the case on file in his office. $503. Remedies for infringement: Impounding and disposition of infringing
articles (a) At any time while an action under this title is pending, the court may order the impounding, on such terms as it may deem reasonable, of all copies or phonorecords claimed to have been made or used in violation of the copyright owner's exclusive rights, and of all plates, molds, matrices, masters, tapes, film negatives, or other articles by means of which such copies or phonorecords may be reproduced.
(b) As part of a final judgment or decree, the court may order the destruction or other reasonable disposition of all copies or phonorecords found to have been made or used in violation of the copyright owner's exclusive rights, and of all plates, molds, matrices, masters, tapes, film negatives, or other articles by means of which such copies or phonorecords may be reproduced. 3504. Remedies for infringement: Damages and profits
(a) IN GENERAL.-Except as otherwise provided by this title, an infringer of copyright is liable for either:
(1) the copyright owner's actual damages and any additional profits of the infringer, as provided by subsection (b); or
(2) statutory damages, as provided by subsection (c). (b) ACTUAL DAMAGES AND PROFITS.-The copyright owner is entitled to recover the actual damages suffered by him as a result of the infringement, and any profits of the infringer that are attributable to the infringement and are not taken into account in computing the actual damages. In establishing the infringer's profits, the copyright owner is required to present proof only of the in
fringer's gross revenue, and the infringer required to prove his deductible expenses and the elements of profit attributable to factors other than the copyrighted work. (c) STATUTORY DAMAGES.
(1) Except as provided in clause (2) of this subsection, the copyright owner may elect to recover, instead of actual damages and profits, an award of statutory damages for all infringements involved in the action, with respect to any one work, for which any one infringer is liable individually, or for which any two or more infringers are liable jointly and severally, in a sum of not less than $250 or more than $10,000 as the court considers just. For the purposes of this subsection, all the parts of a compilation or derivative work constitute one work.
(2) In a case where the copyright owner sustains the burden of proving that infringement was committed willfully after service upon the infringer of a written notice to desist, the court in its discretion may increase the award of statutory damages to a sum of not more than $20,000. In a case where the infringer sustains the burden of proving that he was not aware and had no reason to believe that his acts constituted an infringement of copyright, the court in its discretion may reduce the award of statutory
damages to a sum of not less than $100. 8505. Remedies for infringement: Costs and attorney's fees
In any civil action under this title, the court in its discretion may allow the recovery of full costs by or against any party other than the United States or an officer thereof. Except as otherwise provided by this title, the court may also award a reasonable attorney's fee to the prevailing party as part of the costs. $ 506. Criminal offenses
(a) CRIMINAL INFRINGEMENT.-Any person who infringes a copyright willfully and for purposes of commercial advantage or private financial gain shall be fined not more than $2,500 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both, for the first such offense, and shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than three years, or both, for any subsequent offense.
(b) FRAUDULENT COPYRIGHT NOTICE.-Any person who, with fraudulent intent, places on any article a notice of copyright or words of the same purport that he knows to be false, or who, with fraudulent intent, publicly distributes or imports for public distribution any article bearing such notice or words that he knows to be false, shall be fined not more than $2,500.
(c) FRAUDULENT REMOVAL OF COPYRIGHT NOTICE.-Any person who, with fraudulent intent, removes or alters any notice of copyright appearing on a copy of a copyrighted work shall be fined not more than $2,500.
(d) FALSE REPRESENTATION.--Any person who knowingly makes a false representation of a material fact in the application for copyright registration provided for by section 408, or in any written statement filed in connection with the application, shall be fined not more than $2,500. 8507. Limitations on actions
(a) CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS.—No criminal proceeding shall be maintained under the provisions of this title unless it is commenced within three years after the cause of action arose.
(b) CIVIL ACTIONS.—No civil action shall be maintained under the provisions of this title unless it is commenced within three years after the claim accrued. 8 508. Notification of filing and determination of actions
(a) Within one month after the filing of any action under this title, the clerks of the courts of the United States shall send written notification to the Register of Copyrights setting forth, as far as is shown by the papers filed in the court, the names and addresses of the parties and the title, author, and registration number of each work involved in the action. If any other copyrighted work is later included in the action by amendment, answer, or other pleading, the clerk shall also send a notification concerning it to the Register within one month after the pleading is filed.
(b) Within one month after any final order or judgment is issued in the case, the clerk of the court shall notify the Register of it, sending him a copy of the order or judgment together with the written opinion, if any, of the court.
(c) Upon receiving the notifications specified in this section, the Register shall make them a part of the public records of the Copyright Office. CHAPTER 6-MANUFACTURING REQUIREMENT AND IMPORTATION See. 601. Manufacture, importation, and public distribution of certain copies. 602. Infringing importation of copies or phonorecords. 603. Importation prohibitions: enforcement and disposition of excluded articles. $ 601. Manufacture, importation, and public distribution of certain copies
(a) Except as provided by subsection (b), the importation into or public distribution in the United States of copies of a work consisting preponderantly of nondramatic literary material that is in the English language and is protected under this title is prohibited unless the portions consisting of such material have been manufactured in the United States. (b) The provisions of subsection (a) do not apply:
(1) where, on the date when importation is sought or public distribution in the United States is made, the author of any substantial part of such material is neither a citizen nor a domiciliary of the United States ;
(2) where the Bureau of Customs is presented with an import statement issued under the seal of the Copyright Office, in which case a total of no more than 3,500 copies of any one such work shall be allowed entry; the import statement shall be issued upon request to the copyright owner or to a person designated by him at the time of registration for the work under section 407 or at any time thereafter;
(3) where importation is sought under the authority or for the use, other than in schools, of the government of the United States or of any State; (4) where importation, for use and not for sale, is sought:
(A) by any person with respect to no more than one copy of any one work at any one time;
(B) by any person arriving from abroad, with respect to copies forming part of his personal baggage; or
(C) by an organization operated for scholarly, educational, or religious purposes and not for private gain, with respect to copies intended to
form a part of its library;
(5) where the copies are reproduced in raised characters for the use of the blind.
(6) where, in addition to copies imported under clauses (3) and (4) of this subsection, no more than 3,500 copies of any one such work, which have not been manufactured in the United States, are publicly distributed in the
United States. (c) The requirement of this section that copies be manufactured in the United States is satisfied where they have been printed from type set in the United States, either by hand or by the aid of any typesetting machine, or from plates made in the United States from type set therein, or, if the text has been produced by lithographic process, or photoengraving process, then by a process wholly performed in the United States, and where the printing of the text and binding of the copies have been performed in the United States. If the copies have been printed or produced by any process other than those specified in this subsection, the requirement is satisfied where every step in their reproductive manufacture took place in the United States.
(d) Importation or public distribution of copies in violation of this section does not invalidate protection for a work under this title. However, in any action for infringement of the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute copies of the work, the infringer has a complete defense if :
(1) he proves that copies of the work have been imported into or publicly distributed in the United States in violation of this section, and that the infringing copies were manufactured in the United States; and
(2) the owner of such exclusive rights then fails to sustain the burden of proving either:
(A) that such importation or public distribution was without his authority or acquiescence; or
(B) that the infringement was commenced more than three months after the effective date of registration for an authorized edition of the work, the copies of which have been manufactured in the United States.
8 602. Infringing importation of copies or phonorecords
(a) Importation into the United States, without the authority of the owner of copyright under this title, of copies or phonorecords of a work for the purpose of distribution to the public is an infringement of the exclusive right to distribute copies or phonorecords under section 106, actionable under section 501. This section does not apply to importation by an organization operated for scholarly, educational, or religious purposes and not for private gain, with respect to copies or phonorecords intended to form a part of its library.
(b) In a case where the making of the copies or phonorecords would have constituted an infringement of copyright if this title had been applicable, their importation is prohibited. In a case where the copies or phonorecords were lawfully made, the Bureau of Customs has no authority to prevent their importation unless the provisions of section 601 are applicable. In either case, the Secretary of the Treasury is authorized to prescribe, by regulation, a procedure under which any person claiming an interest in the copyright in a particular work may, upon payment of a specified fee, be entitled to notification by the Bureau of the importation of articles that appear to be copies or phonorecords of the work. $ 603. Importation prohibitions: Enforcement and disposition of excluded
articles (a) The Secretary of the Treasury and the Postmaster General shall separately or jointly make regulations for the enforcement of the provisions of this title prohibiting importation.
(b) These regulations may require, as a condition for the exclusion of articles under section 602:
(1) that the person seeking exclusion obtain a court order enjoining importation of the articles; or
(2) that he furnish proof, of a specified nature and in accordance with prescribed procedures, that the copyright in which he claims an interest is valid and that the importation would violate the prohibition in section 602; he may also be required to post a surety bond for any injury that may result
if the detention or exclusion of the articles proves to be unjustified. (c) Articles imported in violation of the importation prohibitions of this title are subject to seizure and forfeiture in the same manner as property imported in violation of the customs revenue laws. Forfeited articles shall be destroyed as directed by the Secretary of the Treasury or the court, as the case may be; however, the articles may be returned to the country of export whenever it is shown to the satisfaction of the Secretary of the Treasury that the importer had no reasonable grounds for believing that his acts constituted a violation of law.
CHAPTER 7–COPYRIGHT OFFICE
701. The Copyright Office: general responsibilities and organization. 702. Copyright Office regulations. 703. Effective date of actions in Copyright Office. 704. Retention and disposition of articles deposited in Copyright Office. 705. Copyright Office records: preparation, maintenance, public inspection, and searching. 706. Copies of Copyright Office records. 707. Copyright Office forms and publications. 708. Copyright Office fees. $ 701. The Copyright Office: General responsibilities and organization
(a) All administrative functions and duties under this title, except as otherwise specified, are the responsibility of the Register of Copyrights as director of the Copyright Office in the Library of Congress. The Register of Copyrights, together with the subordinate officers and employees of the Copyright Office, shall be appointed by the Librarian of Congress, and shall act under his general direction and supervision.
(b) The Register of Copyrights shall adopt a seal to be used on and after January 1, 1967, to authenticate all certified documents issued by the Copyright Office.
(c) The Register of Copyrights shall make an annual report to the Librarian of Congress of the work and accomplishments of the Copyright Office during the previous fiscal year. The annual report of the Register of Copyrights shall be published separately and as a part of the annual report of the Librarian of Congress.