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Another example is that relative to the procurement of rifle ammunition. The present type of rifle ammunition differs considerably from that used in the last war, being a very inuch improved type which none of the commercial companies has heretofore made. We desire very much to have these commercial companies learn to make this ammunition. Under existing laws, however, we can not place orders with them unless their bid compares favorably with that of Frankford Arsenal. Moreover, under section 3709, Revised Statutes, above quoted, we would be obliged to award the contract to the lowest bidder, and there being five of these cartridge plants, it is obvious that four of them would not receive orders. We are now manufacturing much more of this ammunition annually than is necessary to keep the art of manufacture alive at Frankfort Arsenal, and to maintain a nucleus of skilled employees at that arsenal, and we believe it would be to the best interests of the United States to place annually an order of a small number of rounds with each one of these five cartridge companies. This can not be done in conformity with the present laws, because of competitive bidding, and also because the prices at which these commercial plants can make ammunition are higher than the cost of manufacture at Frankford Arsenal.

Another example is that of searchlights. The placing of educational orders for searchlights with industry in peace time is necessary for the following


1. There is no commercial demand for searchlights of the United States Army type, hence they are only manufactured on Government orders and the production is confined to limited facilities.

2. Searchlights are of special design and construction, requiring very highgrade artisans, with long years of training, and a special set-up of machinery to produce the completed article.

The primary components of a searchlight, which are difficult to procure in both peace and war, consist of:

(a) Searchlight drum, door and shutter, mirror mounting, trunnions, measuring instruments, lamp mechanisms, and special electrical apparatus for operation of the unit.

(b) Mirrors, searchlight, 60 inches in diameter.

At present there are only two firms which manufacture the searchlight mechanism and component parts listed in (a), above. Due to lack of orders, one of these firms has virtually closed down the searchlight department, so that it can not meet competition along this line.

There were two firms which made searchlight mirrors, one of which devised a machine for the purpose of grinding glass. Due to lack of orders, this latter firm has already scrapped the machine and is now utilizing the force and space for other production. The first firm grinds the mirrors by hand, which is a slow and laborious process, requiring skilled artisans, with long years of training.

In a major emergency, with all four of the firms mentioned above working at maximum capacity, it will require from 11 to 15 months to meet requirements. Unless authorization is given to place educational orders, it will be impossible in time of a major emergency to meet the demand for searchlights. The Chief of Engineers has, therefore, recommended that Congress authorize the placing of educational orders for searchlights.

If any additional information from the War Department is desired, I shall be pleased to furnish it.

If the Committee on Military Affairs wishes to have hearings upon the proposed legislation, the following-named officers are designated to appear before your committee:

Maj. Gen. C. C. Williams, Maj. Gen. M. M. Patrick, Maj. Gen. Edgar Jadwin, Brig. Gen. C. L'H. Ruggles.

The proposed legislation has been submitted to the Director of the Bureau of the Budget who advises that the same is not in conflict with the financial program of the President.

A similar letter has been addressed to the chairman of the Committee on Mililtary Affairs of the Senate.

Sincerely yours,

DWIGHT F. DAVIS, Secretary of War.



BROOKLYN, N. Y., January 9, 1929.

Chairman Committee on Military Affairs,

House of Representatives:

Please record my whole-hearted approval of your bill (H. R. 450) authorizing educational orders for military equipment. The expenditure of funds in the education of industry in the manufacture of noncommercial articles of war seems to provide the best method of preparing this country against a possible emergency. The placing of small, properly financed, orders to familiarize our industries with the qualities desired in the completed product to enable our engineers and manufacturers to provide special machinery, gauges, and tools is of inestimable importance in educating industries of the country.

ELMER A. SPEERY, President.



DETROIT, MICH., January 10, 1929.

House of Representatives, Washington, D. C.:

Chairman Military Affairs Committee,

When I was assistant to General Crozier in the early days of the World War you helped me secure officers to organize the Ordnance Department. You know what we were up against due to the almost total lack of knowledge of the design and manufacture of ordnance. I can never forget the heartbreaking delays and unnecessary waste of funds occasioned by our lack of industrial preparedness, particularly in regard to ordnance. I have devoted the best of my inadequate abilities during the past 10 years to insuring that this state of affairs shall never happen again, and I would give 10 years of my life if it were physically possible for me to appear before you in person to-morrow to urge a favorable report on your bill to authorize placing education orders. Unless we can match our man power with adequate munition power the whole program of national defense is out of balance to a critical degree. If your committee is still holding hearings on this bill any time after January 16, I respectfully ask an opportunity to be heard as chairman National Defense Dilvision of American Society of Mechanical Engineers, comprising 19,000 members. As chief, New York Ordnance District, charged with procurement of approximately $500,000,000 ordnance supplies in event of emergency. And as member national defense committee of National Association of Manufacturers. Please wire collect, care Guardian Detroit Bank, Detroit, Mich.




NEW YORK, January 9, 1929.

Chairman Committee on Military Affairs,

House of Representatives, Washington, D. C.: During a period of the World War as head of the procurement division of the Ordnance Department I had the responsibility of selecting the manufacturers and placing contracts for the ordnance materials for our armies and, since the World War I have had continuous contact with the work of the War Department in industrial preparedness, being a member of the advisory board of the Ordnance Department in the New York district. The experience gained in these relations prompts me to register emphatic approval of bill now in hearing before your committee which would permit Secretary of War to place with commercial concerns educational orders for equipment, munitions, and accessories needed in military service. Undoubtedly the greatest difficulties in

perfecting the national defense in an emergency will be encountered in the problems of munitions manufacture rather than in the problems of training man power. To surmount these difficulties it is essential that American industry be given the opportunity of obtaining the experience in munitions manufacture which would be authorized by the pending bill. I respectfully urge favorable consideration by Military Affairs Committee.



Washington, D. C., February 24, 1928.

Chairman Military Affairs Committee,

House of Representatives, Washington, D. C.

DEAR MR. CHAIRMAN: At the direction of the board of directors of the Army Ordnance Association I beg to inform you that the board, at its annual meeting February 16, 1928, entered upon its minutes a motion indorsing the recommendations contained in the preliminary report, committee on industrial preparedness, National Association of Manufacturers, dated December 15, 1926.

The recommendations of the committee as indorsed by the Army Ordnance Association are:

(3) That the provisions of section 5a of the national defense act, approved June 3, 1916, as amended by the act of June 4, 1920, to the effect that "He (the Assistant Secretary of War) shall cause to be manufactured or produced at the Government arsenals or Government-owned factories of the United States, all such supplies or articles needed by the War Department as said arsenals or Government-owned factories are capable of manufacturing or producing upon an economical basis," be rescinded and that legislation be secured permitting the placing of "educational orders" with commercial manufacturers for the production of noncommercial articles of ordnance with due consideration for knowledge of the art acquired rather than as at present, upon a competitive basis as to price.


CHAS. R. BAXTER, Secretary.


Washington, D. C., March 8, 1928.

House of Representatives, Washington, D. C. DEAR CONGRESSMAN MORIN: American Engineering Council, which represents 43,000 professional engineers engaged in a wide variety of industries and connections, has been, and is now an earnest advocate of increasing the effectiveness of industrial preparedness. Therefore, council is in favor of the legislation proposed by Secretary of War Davis, in his letter to the chairman of the Senate and House Committees on Military Affairs, which would permit the placing of educational orders for munitions, with the object of keeping alive among the commercial manufacturers in the United States the art of munition manufacture. American Engineering Council is also in favor of S. 1824, a bill to amend section 5-A of the national defense act, approved June 4, 1920, and introduced by Senator Reed of Pennsylvania. We wish to be recorded with the committee as being in favor of the character of legislation referred to. In the event that any hearings are held on S. 1824, we would appreciate being advised as far in advance as possible so that we might make arrangements for a proper appear

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House of Representatives, Washington, D. C.

MY DEAR MR. MORIN: I attended the hearing Friday morning on H. R. 450 and intended to be present this morning, but circumstances have prevented.

I would, therefore, appreciate it very much if you would have the following statement placed in the record:

American Engineering Council speaks officially for 25 national, State, and local engineering societies, having a combined membership of 43,000 professional engineers, in relation to matters such as H. R. 450. The council has given, on behalf of its constituency, careful consideration relating to industrial preparedness. It has actively supported the War Department and other agencies having responsibility for directing this important matter, hence the council is in a position to appreciate the merits of H. R. 450 and desires to be recorded as thoroughly in accord with the said bill.

Such legislation would enable this country to be far better prepared for a national emergency than has been its experience at any time in the past. For this reason we earnestly hope H. R. 450 will be promply and favorably reported by the committee and that it may be enacted into law at an early date. Respectfully submitted.

LEW WALLACE, Executive Secretary.

Hon. J. M. MORIN,



New York, N. Y., February 15, 1928.

Chairman Military Affairs Committee, Washington, D. C.

DEAR SIR: It is a pleasure to inform you of the official action of members of New York Chapter, Military Order of the World War, in expressing their keen interest and support of the proposal that orders for military supplies be placed with private concerns in such amounts and with such regularity as will make it possible for such private plants to maintain facilities for the manufacture of military supplies in the event of an emergency.

Members of the chapter, because of their service, are keenly appreciative of the wisdom of this proposal, and I am happy to forward to you this expression of their interest as citizens in this connection.

Yours very truly,

R. L. BULLARD, Commander.


DETROIT, MICH., January 10, 1929.


Chairman Committee on Military Affairs,

House of Representatives:

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Detroit section, in session have instructed me to urge upon you the necessity of passing bill No. 45 amending the national defense act.

C. J. OXFORD, Chairman Detroit Section.

The CHAIRMAN. Commander Sharp is here from the Navy Department, and he desires to make a brief statement at this time.


Commander SHARP. Mr. Chairman, the Secretary of the Navy directed that I be present this morning, if the committee would receive me, to say that the Navy is in accord with the War Department as to the desirability of having educational orders, and would request, if possible, that this legislation be so framed as to include the Navy in its benefits.

Mr. HUGHES. Did you say the Navy is in accord with this bill? Commander SHARP. Yes, sir. We have every desire to cooperate with the War Department in this and in other matters.

To be concrete, the Navy Department suggests that certain wording in the bill be changed in order to make it include the Navy Department. In the proviso on page 2, the Navy Department sug gests an amendment in line 1 after the word "War to insert the words "and the Secretary of the Navy," so that it will read, “That the Secretary of War and the Secretary of the Navy may outhorize the placing of educational orders," and so forth. Then in line 3 the Navy Department recommends the insertion, after the word "service" the words "and the naval service," so that it will read "accessories needed in the military service and the naval service with commercial concerns."

Then the Navy Department suggests that the word "him" in line 4 be changed to "them," and in line 7, after the word "Department,' to insert the words " and the Navy Department"; and in line 8 the Navy Department suggests that the words "his opinion" be stricken out and the words "the opinion of either Secretary concerned," so that it will read "the competitive bids which in the opinion of either Secretary concerned best secure these results may be accepted."

We think that if the changes suggested are made the bill might be made to include the Navy Department.

The CHAIRMAN. We will consider those suggestions in executive session. Have you anything further to suggest?

Commander SHARP. No, sir; except that the Navy is the first line of defense, and we have need for these educational orders practically equally as much as the Army.

Mr. MCSWAIN. Is the Navy able to buy all the supplies it now needs to use?

Commander SHARP. I presume so; I am not acquainted with the facts in that respect.

Mr. MCSWAIN. If it bought any more, what would it do with what it bought?

Commander SHARP. That is a difficult question for me to answer. As a matter of fact, I do not believe that it is a question of buying additional articles but rather of training industry.

The CHAIRMAN. We will now hear Mr. Trigg. Mr. Trigg, will you, for the purposes of the record, qualify, giving your name to the reporter, with the position you hold in the United States Chamber of Commerce and in the business concern with which you are connected.


Mr. TRIGG. My name is Ernest T. Trigg; I am president of John Lucas & Co., Philadelphia, Pa., and chairman of the committee on national defense of the United States Chamber of Commerce. I am also a member of the board of directors of the United States Chamber of Commerce.

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