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Pre-Service (goals and objectives of programming)
Teacher and Community Resource Personnel
36 teachers (part-time)
Learning Materials and Supplies
Resource materials for curriculum development
Communications Equipment (hardware)
Wiring of schools for T.V. installation
45 ,000. 12,000. 33,000. 12,000. 12,500.
Expenditure per Pupil in Average Daily Attendance, K-12
Additional Federal $ 244 ,529. 385,787. 410,000.
Juvenile Delinquency; MDTA; Rockefeller)
Estimate of Expenditures for Next Five Fiscal Years
(using 12% increase per year)
Although this projection for the final year, FY 75-76, appears
Due to the wide ranging scope of program objectives and the diversity among the receptors of program benefits, the evaluation of the constituent elements of the total project must be accomplished through the utilization of a multifaceted evaluation design. As the project is presently conceived, a number of beneficial intermediate and terminal outcomes are expected to ensue. Each outcome may be placed upon a serially accelerating time-effect line; the incremental elements (developmental stages or components) of which evidence mutually supportive functions. The entire evaluative effort must as a consequence reflect the overall project plan through its cycles of annual reassessment, planning, evaluation, and redesign. Figure 2 presents a model suggested to facilitate program planning for instructional improvemenc in schools participating in the project by means of a continuous evaluative effort over the five year life of the project in the Public Schools of East Chicago, Indiana.
The scheme provides for six steps in the process of instructional improvement.
Needs assessment through a continuous self-study of the East Chicago
2. Program Design or Revision based primarily upon planning which incorporates
program objectives of three types, according to the classification system
3. Implementation provides for putting into operation the plans laid in the
program design step for initiating instructional change.
Goal Assessment implements the evaluation plans of Step 3 to measure
Both narrow, intermediate objectives--specific to a
Diffusion includes adequate publicity through oral and written communi-
1 Educational Innovators Press, Performance and Process Objectives, Tucson, Arizona. (1970) 6. Adoption is the last step in the process of instructional improvement. It
permits system-wide conversion to the new processes and technique, including the appropriation of necessary support systems.
The model provides for recycling through the entire process immediately after the achievement of adoption and systematization of the newly implemented program. Thus rigidity of curriculum is averted by requiring a continually recycling program of selfstudy for improvement.
Goal assessment, Step 4 in the model, bears further elaboration. This component will consist of three separate, although related, procedures: (1) product evaluation; (2) process evaluation; (3) comparisons of predetermined performance criteria with actual acconplishments.
Product Evaluation: This procedure provides systematic, vigorous, and independent assessments of the degree to which project proposals are implemented, standards are met, and goals are achieved. It will relate the project's educational product to the ongoing programs of instruction and services which are already operational in the East Chicago (Indiana) Public Schools.
Process Evaluation: This procedure permits continuous reassessments of the effec: tiveness of programming at time intervals ranging in duration from a single day to one week. Findings will help decision makers to modify their instructional program and emphasis. In general, process evaluation facilitates evolutionary change by assuring that all aspects of the program will undergo examination at regular intervals as well as at the termination of the project.
Performance Criteria: Under the provisions of the project proposal, elementary and secondary schools will be enabled to strengthen and improve the educational opportunities of all children served by the East Chicago (Indiana) Public Schools. However, not all of the program's objectives are of a nature which will permit the application of standard evaluative techniques. Therefore, at least a portion of the evaluative effort will involve assessing changes in behaviors and environment--factors not readily interpreted through the utilization of closely defined performance criteria--benchmarks of progress for all practical purposes. During the course of a successful program, the group or affected situation will depart from the baseline level and progress in measureable amounts toward the criterion or standard predetermined as the desired outcome.
SPECIFIC EVALUATIVE PROCEDURES TO BE EMPLOYED
Cognitive Learnings: The content of the instructional materials will provide students with experiences which are largely cognitive in nature. They will be expected to remember facts, comprehend ideas, generalize, analyze, hypothesize, synthesize, and evaluate content. Two approaches to the evaluation of cognitive learnings that will be used in the project will be objective tests--standardized and teacher-made--and essay examinations. Of course younger children will be expected to reveal cognitive learnings orally rather than through the use of written instruments.
Affective Learnings: The major objectives of the project relate to improving selfconcepts, accepting different individual and cultural identities, and recognizing the interdependence of socially and economically different racial groups. As a consequence, much of the structured learnings will pertain to values, beliefs, attitudes,
and appreciations. Many of the learnings will be charged with emotion, as they will be aimed at replacing negative feelings of rejection with positive feelings of acceptance. Several methods will be used to determine the degree of progress achieved in this direction which may be attributable to the project
1. Projective techniques including sentence-completion devices and having the
child respond to standardized sets of pictures reflecting human beings in
The Stevenson Q-Sort Technique will be utilized to assess differences in
Questionnaires will be devised to help assess immediate effects of individual units of instruction through the application of pre-post designs.
Structured interviews will be held with a random sample of children selected
Teachers will utilize observational techniques in noting differences in
Teachers will keep systematic anecdotal records or daily logs of observations of individual students in order to identify attitudes and attitudinal change.