Lapas attēli
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Pre-Service (goals and objectives of programming)
In-Service (6 months-development of curriculum

A-V/T.V. Specialists

Teacher and Community Resource Personnel

36 teachers (part-time)
25 'aides

38,000. 35,000.

Learning Materials and Supplies


Resource materials for curriculum development
Production materials for teacher/pupil handbooks


Communications Equipment (hardware)

Wiring of schools for T.V. installation
Microwave or cable installation
Lease for T.V. receivers (200 sets)
Video tape and production supplies
Portable Resource Centers (5) @ $2,500.(lease)
Resource Center Equipment (5) @ $1,500.

Miscellaneous hardware
Miscellaneous Costs

45 ,000. 12,000. 33,000. 12,000. 12,500.

7,500. 6,000

Office Supplies

700. 2,000.

500. 250.

750. 2,000.




7. (b)

Expenditure per Pupil in Average Daily Attendance, K-12

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Additional Federal $ 244 ,529. 385,787. 410,000.
Support of Target
Population (Title I, II, ESEA; Headstart; NYC; Migrant; EPDA;

Juvenile Delinquency; MDTA; Rockefeller)

Estimate of Expenditures for Next Five Fiscal Years

(using 12% increase per year)

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Although this projection for the final year, FY 75-76, appears
inordinately high, it must be remembered that the 12% projection
used is one that is a function of previous increases. Not only
have teacher's salaries been increased significantly, but
large budgetary allocations have been made for all employees
also maintainance and instructional equipment and supply areas.

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Due to the wide ranging scope of program objectives and the diversity among the receptors of program benefits, the evaluation of the constituent elements of the total project must be accomplished through the utilization of a multifaceted evaluation design. As the project is presently conceived, a number of beneficial intermediate and terminal outcomes are expected to ensue. Each outcome may be placed upon a serially accelerating time-effect line; the incremental elements (developmental stages or components) of which evidence mutually supportive functions. The entire evaluative effort must as a consequence reflect the overall project plan through its cycles of annual reassessment, planning, evaluation, and redesign. Figure 2 presents a model suggested to facilitate program planning for instructional improvemenc in schools participating in the project by means of a continuous evaluative effort over the five year life of the project in the Public Schools of East Chicago, Indiana.

The scheme provides for six steps in the process of instructional improvement.


Needs assessment through a continuous self-study of the East Chicago
Public Schools participating in the project supported by inputs pro-
vided by a PROJECT ADVISORY BOARD FOR EVALUATION and, in all years
following project year one, results of a criterion-referenced test-
ing program specific to the project and over all grade levels K through 12.

2. Program Design or Revision based primarily upon planning which incorporates

program objectives of three types, according to the classification system
devised by the Educational Innovators Press, (1) behavioral, (2) in-
structional, and (3) institutional. This program design stage also pro-
vides a built-in evaluation system keyed to specific program objectives
and to the criterion referenced achievement testing program to be develop-
ed for the project.

3. Implementation provides for putting into operation the plans laid in the

program design step for initiating instructional change.


Goal Assessment implements the evaluation plans of Step 3 to measure
program effects.

Both narrow, intermediate objectives--specific to a
single concept--and broad, program wide objectives are tested for
attainment. If objectives have not been met in terms of the standards
set in the evaluation design, the entire program is recycled beginning
with Step 2; thus permitting renewed planning and implementation of the
program. If objectives are met with success, program designers will
proceed to the next step in the process. It is anticipated that Step 4
will be recycled at least annually for the assessment of major project goals.


Diffusion includes adequate publicity through oral and written communi-
cations with the sponsor and other potential users, the preparation of
materials for dissemination, the development of demonstration techniques,
and the mustering of additional local administrative and financial support
for the program.

1 Educational Innovators Press, Performance and Process Objectives, Tucson, Arizona. (1970) 6. Adoption is the last step in the process of instructional improvement. It

permits system-wide conversion to the new processes and technique, including the appropriation of necessary support systems.

The model provides for recycling through the entire process immediately after the achievement of adoption and systematization of the newly implemented program. Thus rigidity of curriculum is averted by requiring a continually recycling program of selfstudy for improvement.

Goal assessment, Step 4 in the model, bears further elaboration. This component will consist of three separate, although related, procedures: (1) product evaluation; (2) process evaluation; (3) comparisons of predetermined performance criteria with actual acconplishments.

Product Evaluation: This procedure provides systematic, vigorous, and independent assessments of the degree to which project proposals are implemented, standards are met, and goals are achieved. It will relate the project's educational product to the ongoing programs of instruction and services which are already operational in the East Chicago (Indiana) Public Schools.

Process Evaluation: This procedure permits continuous reassessments of the effec: tiveness of programming at time intervals ranging in duration from a single day to one week. Findings will help decision makers to modify their instructional program and emphasis. In general, process evaluation facilitates evolutionary change by assuring that all aspects of the program will undergo examination at regular intervals as well as at the termination of the project.

Performance Criteria: Under the provisions of the project proposal, elementary and secondary schools will be enabled to strengthen and improve the educational opportunities of all children served by the East Chicago (Indiana) Public Schools. However, not all of the program's objectives are of a nature which will permit the application of standard evaluative techniques. Therefore, at least a portion of the evaluative effort will involve assessing changes in behaviors and environment--factors not readily interpreted through the utilization of closely defined performance criteria--benchmarks of progress for all practical purposes. During the course of a successful program, the group or affected situation will depart from the baseline level and progress in measureable amounts toward the criterion or standard predetermined as the desired outcome.


Cognitive Learnings: The content of the instructional materials will provide students with experiences which are largely cognitive in nature. They will be expected to remember facts, comprehend ideas, generalize, analyze, hypothesize, synthesize, and evaluate content. Two approaches to the evaluation of cognitive learnings that will be used in the project will be objective tests--standardized and teacher-made--and essay examinations. Of course younger children will be expected to reveal cognitive learnings orally rather than through the use of written instruments.

Affective Learnings: The major objectives of the project relate to improving selfconcepts, accepting different individual and cultural identities, and recognizing the interdependence of socially and economically different racial groups. As a consequence, much of the structured learnings will pertain to values, beliefs, attitudes,

and appreciations. Many of the learnings will be charged with emotion, as they will be aimed at replacing negative feelings of rejection with positive feelings of acceptance. Several methods will be used to determine the degree of progress achieved in this direction which may be attributable to the project

1. Projective techniques including sentence-completion devices and having the

child respond to standardized sets of pictures reflecting human beings in
a variety of life situations.


The Stevenson Q-Sort Technique will be utilized to assess differences in
descriptors used to discuss one's own race or ethnic group and other groups.


Questionnaires will be devised to help assess immediate effects of individual units of instruction through the application of pre-post designs.


Structured interviews will be held with a random sample of children selected
from both sexes, all grade levels, and from all prominent ethnic groups
represented in the student population.


Teachers will utilize observational techniques in noting differences in
student behaviors in a variety of school settings: (1) formal classroom
situations, (2) school social and athletic events, (3) class trips, and
(4) informal contacts with students of his own choice.


Teachers will keep systematic anecdotal records or daily logs of observations of individual students in order to identify attitudes and attitudinal change.

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