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(2) For the purposes of this Act,"copyright" means the sole right to produce or reproduce the work or any substantial part thereof in any material form whatsoever, to perform, or in the case of a lecture to deliver, the work or any substantial part thereof in public; if the work is unpublished, to publish the work or any substantial part thereof; and shall include the sole right, (a) to produce, reproduce, perform, or publish any

translation of the work; (6) in the case of a dramatic work, to convert it into a

novel or other non-dramatic work; (c) in the case of a novel or other non-dramatic work, or

of an artistic work, to convert it into a dramatic

work, by way of performance in public or otherwise; (d) in the case of a literary, dramatic, or musical work,

to make any record, perforated roll, cinematograph film, or other contrivance by means of which the work

may be mechanically performed or delivered, and to authorize any such acts as aforesaid.

(3) For the purposes of this Act, publication, in relation to any work, means the issue of copies of the work to the public, and does not include the performance in public of a dramatic or musical work, the delivery in public of a lecture, the exhibition in public of an artistic work, or the construction of an architectural work of art, but, for the purposes of this provision, the issue of photographs and engravings of works of sculpture and architectural works of

art shall not be deemed to be publication of such works. Infringement 2. — (1) Copyright in a work shall be deemed to be inof copyright fringed by any person who, without the consent of the

owner of the copyright, does anything the sole right to do
which is by this Act conferred on the owner of the copy-
right: Provided that the following acts shall not constitute
an infringement of copyright: -
(i) Any fair dealing with any work for the purposes of

private study, research, criticism, review, or news

paper summary: (ii) Where the author of an artisticwork is not the owner

of the copyright therein, the use by the author of any mould, cast, sketch, plan, model, or study made by him for the purpose of the work, provided that he does not thereby repeat or imitate the main

design of that work: (iii) The making or publishing of paintings, drawings,

engravings, or photographs of a work of sculpture or artistic craftsmanship, if permanently situate in a public place or building, or the making or publishing of paintings, drawings, engravings, or photographs (which are not in the nature of architectural draw

ings or plans) of any architectural work of art: (iv) The publication in a collection, mainly composed of

non-copyright matter, bona fide intended for the use of schools, and so described in the title and in any advertisements issued by the publisher, of short passages from published literary works not themselves published for the use of schools in which copyright subsists: Provided that not more than two of such passages from works by the same author are published by the same publisher within five years, and that the source from which such

passages are taken is acknowledged: (v) The publication in a newspaper of a report of a

lecture delivered in public, unless the report is prohibited by conspicuous written or printed notice affixed before and maintained during the lecture at or about the main entrance of the building in which the lecture is given, and, except whilst the building is being used for public worship, in a position near the lecturer; but nothing in this paragraph shall affect the provisions in paragraph (i)

as to newspaper summaries: (vi) The reading or recitation in public by one person

of any reasonable extract from any published work. (2) Copyright in a work shall also be deemed to be infringed by any person who(a) sells or lets for hire, or by way of trade exposes or

offers for sale or hire; or (6) distributes either for the purposes of trade or to such

Term of copyright

an extent as to affect prejudicially the owner of the

copyright; or (c) by way of trade exhibits in public; or (d) imports for sale or hire into any part of His Majesty's

dominions to which this Act extends, any work which to his knowledge infringes copyright or would infringe copyright if it had been made within the part of His Majesty's dominions in or into which the sale or hiring, exposure, offering for sale or hire, distribution, exhibition, or importation took place.

(3) Copyright in a work shall also be deemed to be infringed by any person who for his private profit permits a theatre or other place of entertainment to be used for the performance in public of the work without the consent of the owner of the copyright, unless he was not aware, and had no reasonable ground for suspecting, that the performance would be an infringement of copyright.

3. The term for which copyright shall subsist shall, except as otherwise expressly provided by this Act, be the life of the author and a period of fifty years after his death:

Provided that at any time after the expiration of twentyfive years, or in the case of a work in which copyright subsists at the passing of this Act thirty years, from the death of the author of a published work, copyright in the work shall not be deemed to be infringed by the reproduction of the work for sale if the person reproducing the work proves that he has given the prescribed notice in writing of his intention to reproduce the work, and that he has paid in the prescribed manner to, or for the benefit of, the owner of the copyright royalties in respect of all copies of the work sold by him calculated at the rate of ten per cent. on the price at which he publishes the work; and, for the purposes of this proviso, the Board of Trade may make regulations prescribing the mode in which notices are to be given, and the particulars to be given in such notices, and the mode, time, and frequency of the payment of royalties, including (if they think fit) regulations requiring payment in advance or otherwise securing the payment of royalties.

4. If at any time after the death of the author of a Compulsory literary, dramatic, or musical work which has been pub- licences lished or performed in public a complaint is made to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council that the owner of the copyright in the work has refused to republish or to allow the republication of the work or has refused to allow the performance in public of the work, and that by reason of such refusal the work is withheld from the public, the owner of the copyright may be ordered to grant a licence to reproduce the work or perform the work in public, as the case may be, on such terms and subject to such conditions as the Judicial Committee may think fit.

5. — (1) Subject to the provisions of this Act, the au- Ownership thor of a work shall be the first owner of the copyright of copyright, therein:

&c.
Provided that
(a) where, in the case of an engraving, photograph, or

portrait, the plate or other original was ordered by
some other

person

and was made for valuable consideration in pursuance of that order, then, in the absence of any agreement to the contrary, the person by whom such plate or other original was ordered

shall be the first owner of the copyright; and
(6) where the author was in the employment of some

other person under a contract of service or apprentice-
ship and the work was made in the course of his em-
ployment by that person, the person by whom the
author was employed shall, in the absence of any
agreement to the contrary, be the first owner of the
copyright, but where the work is an article or other
contribution to a newspaper, magazine, or similar
periodical, there shall, in the absence of any agree-
ment to the contrary, be deemed to be reserved to the
author a right to restrain the publication of the work,
otherwise than as part of a newspaper, magazine, or

similar periodical.
(2) The owner of the copyright in any work may assign
the right, either wholly or partially, and either generally or
subject to limitations to the United Kingdom or any self-

governing dominion or other part of His Majesty's dominions to which this Act extends, and either for the whole term of the copyright or for any part thereof, and may grant any interest in the right by licence, but no such assignment or grant shall be valid unless it is in writing signed by the owner of the right in respect of which the assignment or grant is made, or by his duly authorized agent:

Provided that, where the author of a work is the first owner of the copyright therein, no assignment of the copyright, and no grant of any interest therein, made by him (otherwise than by will) after the passing of this Act, shall be operative to vest in the assignee or grantee any rights with respect to the copyright in the work beyond the expiration of twenty-five years from the death of the author, and the reversionary interest in the copyright expectant on the termination of that period shall, on the death of the author, notwithstanding any agreement to the contrary, devolve on his legal personal representatives as part of his estate, and any agreement entered into by him as to the disposition of such reversionary interest shall be null and void, but nothing in this proviso shall be construed as applying to the assignment of the copyright in a collective work or a licence to publish a work or part of a work as part of a collective work.

(3) Where, under any partial assignment of copyright, the assignee becomes entitled to any right comprised in copyright, the assignee as respects the right so assigned, and the assignor as respects the rights not assigned, shall be treated for the purposes of this Act as the owner of the copyright, and the provisions of this Act shall have effect accordingly.

Civil Remedies. Civil

6. — (1) Where copyright in any work has been inremedies fringed, the owner of the copyright shall, except as otherfor infringe- wise provided by this Act, be entitled to all such remedies ment of copyright

by way of injunction or interdict, damages, accounts, and otherwise, as are or may be conferred by law for the infringement of a right.

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