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hitherto unpublished may have protection for twenty years. Registration is required at the Ministry of Public Education and deposit of one copy of printed works must be made within one year of publication in the public libraries, in default of which the work falls into the public domain. Bolivia has reciprocal relations under the Montevideo convention as ratified November 5, 1903, with Argentina, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay, and also international arrangements with France (1887).

Ecuador, under the constitution of 1884 and law of 1887, grants copyright for life and fifty years, and playright for life and twenty-five years. Anonymous and pseudonymous works are protected fifty years beyond the death of the publisher, unless the author meantime substitutes his name; posthumous works for twenty-five years. There are special provisions for terms of fifty years in the case of translations, adaptations, compilations, etc., and for twenty-five years for editions of works of undefined authorship. Registration is required with notice of reservation of playright within six months from publication or three months from performance of an unpublished play. Three copies of a printed work must be deposited with the registrar for the use of the Minister of Public Education, the National Library and the provincial library. Titles of periodicals are specified as copyrightable. Assignment must be registered to become operative. Protection is seemingly confined to a citizen of Ecuador, but it is expressly provided that a foreign author may assign right of translation or playright to a citizen of Ecuador, who may then prevent infringement. Ecuador has reciprocal relations with Mexico (1888), as also with France (1898, 1905) and Spain (1900), all on the “most favored nation' basis.

Colombia, under the Constitution and law of 1886, Colombia and the civil code of 1873 and penal code of 1890, protects copyright, including playright, for life and eighty years, and for the legal existence of a corporate body, with the provision as in Spain respecting natural heirs. Registration is required within a year from publication or performance, at the Ministry of Public Education, with deposit of three copies, one for the Ministry and two for the National Library. If a work is not registered within the year, it falls into the public domain for ten years, but can thereafter be protected by registration within the succeeding year. Non-Colombian authors seem not to enjoy protection of the right of translation for a work printed in a country of foreign language. Colombia has treaties with Spain (1885) on the "most favored nation" basis, Italy (1892) and Switzerland (1908).

Venezuela, under the law of 1894 and penal code of Venezuela 1897, protects copyright including playright in perpetuity, the publisher being considered the author in the case of anonymous and pseudonymous works pending legal proof of the identity of the author. In posthumous works protection is in perpetuity to the heirs or assigns. The right is secured by request to the district governor or state president for the issue of a patent with registry of title and verbal oath that the work has not been previously published within Venezuela or elsewhere; the patent certificate must be printed on the back of the title-page, and must be published at least four times in the official gazette. Deposit must be made of six copies at the Registry, two copies going to the Minister of Agriculture for the National Library. Protection is not specifically confined to Venezuelans, and seems to depend on first publication, but assignment to a citizen of Venezuela may be desirable. Venezuela has no foreign relations.




Copyrights BUSINESS relations, founded on copyright, are chiefly in their

those between author and publisher. These relations business relations

involve questions, not so much of copyright law in itself, as of the law of contract and other statutory and common law provisions. There has been more or less desire on the part of authors to include business relations within copyright statutes, and in fact the recommendations of the American (Authors) Copyright League to the initial copyright conference of 1905 covered several points of business law, as for instance the right of an author to recover possession of his work from the publisher in case the publisher failed to keep it in print, or the right to prevent assignment of publication rights to a publisher unsatisfactory to the author. It was, however, determined, both in the conferences and by the Congressional Committees, to omit as far as practicable from the copyright law all questions of business relationship, 1 and to leave these to specific contracts between author and publisher or to the general provisions of

law. The law, whether as to copyright or other mat| ters, should afford a basis of certainty for business,

but it cannot wisely interfere with freedom of contract

I between the parties to a business transaction. The German American and English statutes accordingly make no publishing special regulation of the calling of publisher. Provilaw of 1901

sion is, however, made in some continental countries for the regulation of publishing and publishers, as in Germany, where a law of June 19, 1901, passed coincidently with the general copyright code, covers this field in remarkable detail. It provides that the author, during the continuance of the publishing contract within the copyright period, may not reproduce or distribute the work otherwise than through the

1 publisher, except in translation, dramatization (or if a I play, novelization) or elaboration of a musical work which is not merely a transposition or arrangement. The author is privileged to include his work in a collected edition twenty years after publication, or an article from a collective work after one year; and the publisher may not republish in such form under the contract. Unless otherwise specified, the publisher Editions is entitled to print only one edition, if undefined one thousand copies, in addition to extra copies for replacing damaged copies and not more than five per cent free copies; destroyed copies may be replaced on notice to author. Opportunity for revision must be afforded to the author in new editions. Alterations Alterations are permitted to the author before reproduction and at his expense during the progress of the work, but he cannot be charged for alterations necessitated by new circumstances. The publisher may not make alterations or abbreviation of text or title, except those to which the author cannot fairly refuse consent.

The publisher must issue the work in suitable form Issuance of in accordance with the customs of the trade and the work character of the book, and immediately after receipt of the complete work or completed separate part. The publisher must take measures to keep the book in stock. He is not bound to produce a new edition, but if on request from the author he fails to do so, the publishing right reverts to the author. The publisher may cancel the contract, if the purpose of a work no longer exists, on payment of remuneration to the

author. Proof for correction must be furnished to the

author. Price and re- The publisher may fix and reasonably reduce muneration

the price, but can raise it only with consent of the author. If remuneration is not specified, an equitable payment is required, and the remuneration is due on the delivery or on the appearance of the work, or if determined by sale, then yearly, with opportunity to the author to verify the account from the publisher's books. The author is entitled to free copies to the extent of one per cent of the edition, but not less than five nor more than fifteen, and to additional copies at the lowest trade price. The author is entitled to return of his manuscript after reproduction,

if stipulated at the beginning. Assignment The publisher may assign, in the absence of agree

ment, but not for separate works; though for this last, consent cannot unreasonably be withheld and may be presumed if the author does not reply within two months to a demand; and the assignee becomes, jointly with the original publisher, liable to the author for future performance of the contract. When a contract is completed by the issue of specified editions or copies, the publisher is bound to notify the author, and if the contract is for a definite time, the publisher is not entitled to distribute remaining copies after that time. In case of delay in the contracted delivery of the work, the publisher, after a reasonable extension of time, may decline the work, unless delay involves only insignificant loss; and in case the work is not of stipulated quality, the publisher may also cancel the contract or require damages for non-fulfillment. The

author has analogous rights as against the publisher. Accidental If the work is accidentally destroyed after delivery destruction

to the publisher, the author is entitled to remuneration, but the contract terminates; but the author

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