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into the House of Commons July 26, 1910, in the names of Mr. Buxton, Mr. Solicitor-General, Colonel Seely and Mr. Tennant, the adoption of which would provide a copyright code similar in extent to the American code of 1909, and applicable throughout the British dominions, with the proviso that the self-governing dominions may accept or modify the code or legislate separately, and providing also for international copyright. The bill adopted most of the features of the Berlin convention including the term of life and fifty years, covered literary, dramatic, musical and artistic works, including architectural works of art, and while distinguishing between first publication and performance, included under copyright acoustic or visual performance or exhibition and control for mechanical reproduction. The bill, somewhat modified, was re-introduced into the subsequent Parliament March 30, 1911, emerged from committee with important alterations July 13, 1911, and was passed with slight additional changes by the House of Commons August 17, and first read in the House of Lords August 18, 1911. On passage of the House of Lords, it becomes effective July 1, 1912, unless earlier date is provided by Order in Council. The bill repeals by specific schedule all existing laws except specified sections in the fine arts copyright act of 1862, the musical copyright acts of 1902 and 1906, and the copyright provisions in the customs consolidation act of 1876 and the revenue act of 1889. The provisions of the new measure are specifically treated and summarized comprehensively in later chapters and the full text is given in the appendix.

The bill does not, however, repeal the previous law Design as to copyright in designs, which had continued to patents receive consideration during the Victorian reign in laws, later than those cited, of 1858-1861, and thus

Common law rights

finally became merged in the protection of patents. Thus "designs capable of being registered under the patents and designs act, 1907," are specifically excepted under clause 22 of the proposed copyright code.

It seems possible that, under the precedent of the acts of 1775 and 1801, the common law rights practically taken away by the statute of Anne and specifically abrogated by the proposed bill, could have been restored by legislation. These restrictions have not only ruled the practice of England ever since, but they were embodied in the Constitution of the United States, and have influenced alike our legislators and our courts.

IV

THE HISTORY OF COPYRIGHT IN THE UNITED STATES

The Constitution of the United States authorized ConstituCongress 'to promote the progress of science and tional provi

sion useful arts by securing for limited times, to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries.'1 Previous to its adoption, in 1787, the nation had no power to act, but on Madison's motion, Congress, in May, 1783, recommended the States to pass acts securing copyright for fourteen years.

Connecticut in January, 1783, Massachusetts in Early state March, 1783, and Maryland in April, 1783, had al- legislation ready provided for copyright, twenty-one years being the usual period. New Jersey on May 27, 1783, and New Hampshire and Rhode Island in December of the same year, followed Madison's suggestion. Pennsylvania and South Carolina in March, 1784, Virginia and North Carolina in 1785, Georgia and New York in 1786, also passed copyright acts, so that all the thirteen States except Vermont had separately provided for copyright,

- thanks to the vigorous copyright crusade of Noah Webster, who traveled from capital to capital, — when the United States statute of 1790 made them unnecessary.

This act followed the precedent of the English act The act of of 1710, and gave to authors who were citizens or 1790 residents, their heirs and assigns, copyright in books, maps and charts for fourteen years, with renewal for fourteen years more, if the author were living at expiration of the first term. A printed title must be deposited before publication in the clerk's office of

1802-1867

the local United States District Court; notice must be printed four times in a newspaper within two months after publication a copy must be deposited with the United States Secretary of State within six months after publication; the penalties were forfeiture and a fine of fifty cents for each sheet found, half to go to the United States; a remedy was provided against unauthorized publication of manuscripts.

This original and fundamental act was followed by others - in 1802, requiring copyright record to be printed on or next the title-page, and including designs, engravings and etchings; in 1819, giving United States Circuit Courts original jurisdiction in copyright cases; in 1831 (a consolidation of previous acts), including musical compositions, extending the term to twenty-eight years, with renewal for fourteen years to author, widow, or children, doing away with the newspaper notice except for renewals, and providing for the deposit of a copy with the district clerk (for transmission to the Secretary of State) within three months after publication; in 1834, requiring record of assignment in the court of original entry; in 1846 (the act establishing the Smithsonian Institution), requiring one copy to be delivered to that, and one to the Library of Congress; in 1855, a postal provision for free mailing of deposits; in 1856, securing to dramatists the right of performance; in 1859, repealing the provision of 1846 for the deposit of copies, and making the Interior Department instead of the State Department the copyright custodian; in 1861, providing for appeal in all copyright cases to the Supreme Court; in 1865, including photographs and negatives, and again requiring deposit with the Library of Congress, within one month from publication; in 1867, providing $25 penalty for failure to deposit. This makes twelve acts bearing on copyright up to 1870, when a general act took the place of all, including The re"paintings, drawings, chromos, statues, statuary, and vised act of models or designs intended to be perfected as works

1870 of the fine arts.” This did away with the local District Court system of registry, and made the Librarian of Congress the copyright officer, with whom printed title must be filed before, and two copies deposited within ten days after, publication. In 1873-4 the copyright act was included in the Revised Statutes as sections 4948 to 4971 (also see secs. 629 and 699), and in 1874 an amendatory act made legal 1874-1882 a short form of record, “Copyright, 184, by A. B.," and relegated labels to the Patent Office. In 1879 the Post Office appropriation bill contained a proviso against the transmission of any publication which violates copyright; in 1882 an amendment dealt with the position of the copyright notice on moulded, decorative articles, etc.

In 1891 there was passed, after a long canıpaign, Internathe so-called international copyright act, extending tional copycopyright to the citizens of other nations in case of right legis

lation, 1891 reciprocal grants by such nations, and providing that the copyright on books and certain other articles should be conditioned on manufacture in the United States. In 1893 an amendatory act gave the same effect to copies deposited “on or before publication.” In 1895 the public documents bill provided that no government publication should be copyrighted, and another bill imposed penalties in the case of infringement of photographs and of original works of art. In 1897 an act provided that unauthorized representation, wilful and for profit, of any dramatic or musical composition is a misdemeanor punishable by imprisonment; another act provided for the appointment of a Register of Copyrights under the direction and supervision of the Librarian of Congress; and a

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